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147 Cards in this Set

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- refers to an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job
- is a current assessment of what one can do
- the intellectual version of this is one of the best predictors of task performance
- employee performance is enhanced when there is a high fit between this and the job
ability
- the sum of total ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others
- most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid
personality
5 aspects of the Big-Five Model
1. Extraversion
2. Agreeableness
3. Conscientiousness
4. Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)
5. Openness to Experience
- friendliness, gregariousness, assertiveness, active, excitement-seeking, and cheerful
- predicts job performance in certain jobs (i.e. sales)
extraversion
- trust, morality, altruism, cooperation, modesty, and sympathy
- predicts job performance in certain jobs (i.e. customer service)
agreeableness
- self-efficacy, orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, and cautiousness
- predicts job performance across all jobs. Best predictor among the Big Five
conscientiousness
- anxiety, anger, depression, self-consciousness, immoderation, and vulnerability
- predicts job performance across all jobs, particularly stressful jobs
emotional stability (neuroticism)
- imagination, artistic interest, emotionality, adventurousness, intellect, and liberalism
- does not predict job performance, but predicts training performance
openness to experience
7 major personality attributes influencing OB
1. core self-evaluation
2. Machiavellianism
3. narcissism
4. self-monitoring
5. risk taking
6. type A personality
7. proactive personality
2 aspects of core self-evaluation
1. self-esteem
2. locus of control
a person's view of themselves
self-esteem
degree to which you believe you have control of your own fate
locus of control
- degree to which a person is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance and believes that the ends can justify the means
- people high in this are good at persuading others
Machiavellianism
degree of sense of self-importance and arrogance
narcissism
- adjust their behavior to external, situational factors
- people high in this make better leaders
- people high in this are also less committed to an organization
self-monitoring
willingness to take chances
risk taking
excessive competitiveness and sense of time urgency
type A personality
type ___ persons make better decisions than type ___ persons
B; A
identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere
proactive personality
a country's ___ influences the dominant personality characteristics of its population
culture
- represent basic, enduring convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence"
- are based only on nurture, not on nature
values
- represent a prioritizing of individual values
- identified by the relative importance an individual assigns to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality
value systems
2 aspects of the Rokeach Value Survey
1. terminal values
2. instrumental values
- refers to desirable end-states of existence
- goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
terminal values
refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values
instrumental values
managers consistently report that the ___ is the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in their organizations
action of their bosses
5 aspects of Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Cultures
1. power distance
2. individualism vs. collectivism
3. masculinity vs. femininity
4. uncertainty avoidance
5. long-term vs. short-term orientation
- it is sometimes more important that employees' personalities fit with the overall organization's culture than with the characteristics of any specific job
- the fit of employees' values with the culture of their organization predicts job satisfaction, commitment to the organization and low turnover.
person-organization fit
- states that people who are more attracted to a company are more likely to apply there
- the organization weeds people out of the hiring process based on their fit
- people who don't fit in the organization weed themselves out because they don't like working there
ASA (Atraction, Selection, & Attrition) Theory
What 3 things should managers evaluate to determine the optimum ability and personality fit?
1. the job
2. the work group
3. the organization
Managers should find job candidates who not only have the ability and personality traits to perform but also possess ___.
a value system that is compatible with the organization's
a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
perception
the world as it is perceived is the world that is ___.
behaviorally important
suggests that when we observe an individual's behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused
attribution theory
aspect of attribution theory; believed to be under the personal control of the individual
internally
aspect of attribution theory; resulting from outside causes
externally
3 determinants of attribution
1. distinctiveness
2. consensus
3. consistency
determinant of attribution; whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations
distinctiveness
determinant of attribution; if everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way
consensus
determinant of attribution; does the person respond the same way over time
consistency
2 attribution errors
1. fundamental attribution error
2. self-serving bias
when we make judgments about the behavior of others, we tend to underestimate external influence and overestimate internal influence
fundamental attribution error
we tend to attribute our own success to internal factors and put the blame for failure on external factors
self-serving bias
5 shortcuts used in judging others
1. selective perception
2. halo effect
3. contrast effects
4. projection
5. stereotyping
a characteristic that makes someone stand out in our mind will increase the probability that it will be perceived
selective perception
drawing a general impression based on a single characteristic
halo effect
our reaction is influenced by others we have recently encountered
contrast effects
the tendency to attribute our own characteristics to other people
projection
judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which they belong
stereotyping
___ occurs as a reaction to the problem
decision making
3 perception influences
1. awareness that a problem exists
2. the interpretation and evaluation of information
3. bias of analysis and conclusions
6 steps of the Rational Decision-Making Model
1. Define the problem.
2. Identify the decision criteria.
3. Allocate weights to the criteria.
4. Develop the alternatives.
5. Evaluate the alternatives.
6. Select the best alternative.
6 assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model
1. the problem is clear and unambiguous
2. options are known
3. clear preferences
4. constant preferences
5. no time or cost constraints
6. maximum payoff
- the limited information-processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize
- so people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient, rather than optimal
- is constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
bounded rationality
8 common biases and errors
1. overconfidence bias (Huberis)
2. anchoring bias (first impression error)
3. confirmation bias
4. availability bias
5. representative bias
6. escalation of commitment
7. randomness error
8. hindsight bias
as managers and employees become more knowledgeable about an issue, the less likely they are to display overconfidence
overconfidence bias (Huberis)
a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information
anchoring bias (first impression error)
seeking out information that reaffirms our past choices and discounting information that contradicts past judgments
confirmation bias
the tendency to base judgments on information that is readily available
availability bias
the tendency to assess the likelihood of an occurrence by inappropriately considering the current situation as identical to past situations
representative bias
staying with a decision (typically due to sunk costs) even when there is clear evidence that it is wrong
escalation of commitment
the tendency to believe that we can predict the outcome of random events
randomness error
the tendency to believe falsely that we accurately predicted the outcome of an event after that outcome is actually known
hindsight bias
- an unconscious process created out of distilled experience
- complements rational analysis
- can be a powerful force in decision making
intuitive decision making
8 instances when intuitive decision making is used
1. a high level of uncertainty exists
2. there is little precedent to draw on
3. variables are less scientifically predictable
4. "facts" are limited
5. facts don't clearly point the way
6. analytical data are of little use
7. there are several plausible alternatives with good arguments for each
8. time is limited and there is pressure to come up with the right decision
To influence productivity, managers should assess workers' ___ of their jobs
perceptions
4 ways managers can improve decision making
1. analyze the situation
2. be aware of biases and minimize their impact
3. combine rational analysis with intuition
4. try to enhance your creativity
- a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one's environment
- reflect how one feels about something
attitudes
3 major components of attitudes
1. cognition
2. affect
3. behavior intentions
an opinion or belief
cognition
the emotional or feeling segment
affect
the intention to behave in a certain way
behavior intentions
people seek ___ among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behavior
consistency
when there is a(n) ___, the individual may alter either the attitudes or behavior, or develop a rationalization for the discrepancy
inconsistency
- any inconsistency between two or more attitudes, or between behavior and attitudes
- individuals seek to minimize this
cognitive dissonance
the desire to reduce dissonance is determined by: (3 things)
1. the importance of the elements creating the dissonance
2. the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements
3. the rewards that may be involved in dissonance
- the view that behavior influences attitudes
- argues that attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than as devices that precede and guide action
- tend to infer attitude from behavior when you have had few experiences regarding an issue
- attitudes likely to guide behavior when your attitudes have been established for a while
self-perception theory
6 major job attitudes
1. job satisfaction
2. organizational commitment
3. job involvement
4. psychological empowerment
5. perceived organizational support
6. employee engagement
3 types of organizational commitment
1. affective commitment
2. continuance commitment
3. normative commitment
6 things that cause job satisfaction
1. work itself
2. pay
3. advancement
4. supervision
5. coworkers
6. a person's personality
the strongest correlation with overall job satisfaction
work itself
not correlated with job satisfaction after individual reaches a level of comfortable living
pay
6 effects of satisfied and dissatisfied employees
1. job performance
2. OCB
3. workplace deviance
4. customer satisfaction
5. absenteeism
6. turnover
strong correlation to the effects of satisfied and dissatisfied employees (3 effects)
1. job performance
2. workplace deviance
3. customer satisfaction
modest relationship to the effects of satisfied and dissatisfied employees, but more related to conceptions of fair outcomes, treatment and procedures
OCB
moderate to weak negative correlation to the effects of satisfied and dissatisfied employees
absenteeism
moderate negative correlation to effects of satisfied and dissatisfied employees
turnover
- any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
- involves change
- change must become ingrained
- some form of experience is necessary
learning
2 theories of learning
1. operant conditioning
2. social learning
argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don't want
operant conditioning
individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people and just being told about something, as well as by direcft experiences
social learning
4 methods of shaping behavior
1. positive reinforcement
2. negative reinforcement
3. punishment
4. extinction
Managers should raise satisfaction by focusing on ___.
making work challenging and interesting
For employee learning, managers should use ___ instead of ___.
reinforcement; punishment
3 implications for managers concerning ability:
1. effective selection process improves fit
2. promotion and transfer based on abilities
3. fine-tune job to better match abilities
the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward a goal
motivation
how hard a person tries
intensity
how long the effort is maintained
persistence
one that benefits the organization
direction
5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Social
4. Esteem
5. Self-actualization
- inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it
- must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment
- will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction
- place security above all factors and will display little ambition
Theory X
- view work as being as natural as rest or play
- will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives
- can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility
- can make innovative decisions on their own
Theory Y
3 aspects of McClelland's Theory of Needs
1. Need for achievement (nAch)
2. Need for power (nPow)
3. Need for affiliation (nAff)
drive to excel
need for achievement (nAch)
the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise
need for power (nPow)
the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
need for affiliation (nAff)
- high achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility, feedback, and intermediate degree of risk
- high achievers are not necessarily good managers
- affiliation and power closely related to managerial success
- employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need
McClelland's Theory of Needs
- specific goals lead to increased performance
- difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher output than easy goals
- self-generated feedback is a more powerful motivator than externally generated feedback
Goal-Setting Theory
3 influences on goal-performance relationship, according to the Goal-Setting Theory
1. Commitment
2. Task characteristics
3. National culture
converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals
Management by Objectives (MBO)
4 common ingredients of Management by Objectives (MBO)
1. Goal specificity
2. Participation in decision making
3. Explicit time period
4. Performance feedback
- employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome)
- then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others
Equity Theory
ratio of inputs to outcomes
equity sensitivity
3 components of equity sensitivity
1. entitleds
2. equity sensitives
3. benevolents
6 choices when there is perceived inequity
1. Change their inputs
2. Change their outcomes
3. Distort perceptions of self
4. Distort perceptions of others
5. Choose a different referent
6. Leave the field
4 forms of justice
1. Distributive Justice
2. Procedural Justice
3. Interactional Justice
4. Organizational Justice
- perceived fairness of outcome
- example: I got the pay raise I deserved.
distributive justice
- perceived fairness of process used to determine outcome
- example: I had input into the process used to give raises and was given a good explanation of why I received the raise I did.
procedural justice
- perceived degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect
- example: When telling me about my raise, my supervisor was very nice and complimentary.
interactional justice
- overall perception of what is fair in the workplace
- example: I think this is a fair place to work.
organizational justice
4 steps of the Expectancy Theory
1. Individual effort
2. Individual performance
3. Organizational rewards
4. Personal goals
3 relationships in the Expectancy Theory
1. Effort-performance relationship
2. Performance-reward relationship
3. Rewards-personal goals relationship
3 ways that jobs can be redesigned
1. Job Rotation or Cross-training
2. Job Enlargement
3. Job Enrichment
the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another
job rotation or cross-training
increasing the number and variety of tasks
job enlargement
increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work
job enrichment
3 types of alternate work arrangements
1. Flextime
2. Job Sharing
3. Telecommuting
allows some discretion over when worker starts and leaves
flextime
two or more individuals split a traditional job
job sharing
work remotely at least two days per week
telecommuting
a participative process that uses the input of employees to increase their commitment to the organization's success
employee involvement
4 major strategic rewards decisions when rewarding employees
1. what to pay employees
2. how to pay individual employees
3. what benefits to offer
4. how to construct employee recognition programs
When determining what to pay employees, you need to establish a balance between ___ and ___.
internal equity; external equity
When determining what to pay employees, you need to establish a ___.
pay structure
the worth of the job to the organization
internal equity
the external competitiveness of an organization's pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry
external equity
When determining what to pay employees, you need to make a strategic decision with ___.
trade-offs
bases a portion of the pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance
variable-pay programs
6 types of variable-pay programs
1. piece-rate pay
2. merit-based pay
3. bonuses
4. profit-sharing plans
5. gain sharing
6. Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed
piece-rate pay
pay is based on individual performance appraisal ratings
merit-based pay
rewards employees for recent performance
bonuses
organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on an established formula designed around profitability
profit-sharing plans
compensation based on sharing of gains from improved productivity
gain sharing
plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices
Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
- are in addition to extrinsic compensation systems
- are intrinsic rewards
- can be as simple as a spontaneous comment
- can be formalized in a program
employee recognition programs
___ is the most powerful workplace motivator
recognition