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127 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
involves growing worldwide interdependence of resource suppliers, product markets and business competition
Multicultural Workforces
include workers from diverse ethnic backgrounds and nationalities
contracting out of work as an alternative to accomplishing it with one's own workforce
contracting out or outsourcing to workers in foreign countries
Job Migration
movement of jobs from one location or country to another
Global Manager
has international awareness and cultural sensitivity needed to work well across national borders
the learned and shared way of thinking and acting among a group of people or society
Cultural Intelligence
the ability to identify, understand, and act effectively in cross-cultural situations
Attributes of a Global Manager
adapts well to different business environments/respects different beliefs, values and practices/solves problems quickly in new circumstances/communicates well with people from different cultures/speaks more than one language/understands different government and political systems/conveys respect and enthusiasm when dealing with others/possesses high technical expertise for a job
Low-Context Cultures
messages are expressed mainly by the spoken and written word
High-Context Cultures
words convey only part of a message, while the rest of the message must be inferred from body language and additional contextual cues
Polychronic Culture
people tend to do more than one thing at a time
Monochronic Culture
people tend to do one thing at a time
Power Distance
willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among its members
Hofstede's Dimensions of National Cultures
power distance/uncertainty aviodance/individualism-collectivism/masculinity-femininity/long-term vs. short-term orientation
Uncertainty Avoidance
cultural tendency to be uncomfortable with uncertainty and risd in everyday life
tendency of a culture's members to emphasize individual self-interests or group relationships
degree to which a society values assertiveness or relationships
Long-Term/Short-Term orientation
degree to which a culture emphasizes long-term or short-term thinking
assuming taht ways of your culture are the only ways of doing things
assuming that the ways of your culture are the best ways of doing things
How Cultures Deal with Relationships Among People
Universalism v. particularsim/individualism v. collectivism/netral v. affective/specific v. diffuse/achievement v. ascription
Multinational corporation
a business with extensive international operations in more than one country
Domestic Multiculturalsim
cultural diversity within a national population
works and lives in a fereign country for an extended time
employ people that must work under adverse labor conditions
Cultural Relativism
suggests that ethical behavior is determined by its cultural context
Ethical Absolutism
assumes that a single moral standard applies to all cultures
Global Organizational Learning
ability to gather from the world at large the knowledge required for long-term organizational adaptation
repersents the overall profile, or combination of charactersitics, that captures the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others
Argyris's Maturity Continuum
To maturity, activity, independence, diverse behavior, deep interests, long time perspective, superordinate position, much self-awareness
Argyris's Immaturity Continuum
from immaturity, passivity, dependence, limited behavior, shallow interests, short time perspective, subordinate position, little self-awareness
Developmental Approaches
systematic models of ways in which personality develops across time
Personality Dynamics
ways in which asn individual integrates and organizes social traits, valus and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustment
view individuals have of themselves as physical, social and spiritual or moral beings
Big Five Personality Dimensions
extraversion/agreeableness/concientiousness/emotional stability/openness to experience
outgoing, social, assertive
good-natured, trusting, cooperative
responsible, dependable, persistent
Emotional Stability
unworried, secure, relaxed
Openness to experience
imaginative, curious, broad-minded
Social Traits
surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings
tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority
leads a person to see the world as a threatening place and regard authority as absolute
reflects a person's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational (environmental)factors
Emotional Adjustment Traits
measure how much an individual experiences emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts
Type A
impatient, desire for ahcievement and perfection
Type B
easygoing and less competitive nature than type A
broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes
Sources and Types of Values
parents, friends, teachers, and external reference groups can all influence individual values
Terminal Values
person's preferences concerning the "ends" to be achieved
Instrumental Values
person's beliefs about the means for achieving desired ends
Allport's Six Value Categories
theoretical/economic/ aesthetic/social/political/ religious
interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking
usefulness and practicality, including the accumulation of wealth
beauty, form, and artisitic harmony
people and love as a human relationship
gaining power and influencing other people
unity and in understanding the cosmos as a whole
Value Congruence
occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own
Maglino and Associates' Value Categories
achievement/helping and concern for others/honesty/fairness
getting things done and working hard to accomplish difficult things in life
Helping and Concern for Others
being concerned with other people and helping others
telling the truth and ding what you feel is right
being impartial and doing what is fair for all concerned
predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one's environment
The Cognitive Component
(of an attitude) reflects the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses
represent ideas about someone or something and the conclusions people draw about them
The Affective Component
(of an attitude) specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents
The Behavioral Component
(of an attitude) intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance
state of inconsistency between an individual's attitude and behavior
when one thinks of an individual as belinging to a group or category (i.e. elderly person) and the charactersitics commonly associated with the group or category are assigned to in the individual in question
Demographic Characteristics
background variables (i.e. age/gender) that help shape what a person becoms over time
person's capability of learning something
person's existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job
process through which people reveive, organize and interpret information from thier environment
Factors Influencing the Perceptual Process - Perceiver
experience/needs or motives/values/attitudes
Factors Influencing the Perceptual Process - Setting
physical/social/ organizational
Factors Influencing the Perceptual Process - Perceived
contrast/figure-ground separation/intensity/size/ motion/repetition v. novelty
cognitive frameworks taht represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience
Halo/Horn Effect
when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop aln overall impression of the person or situation
Selective Perception
tendency to single out for attention those aspects of a situation or person that reinforce or emerge and are consistent with existing beliefs, values and needs
assignment of personal attributes to other individuals
Contrast Effects
occur when an individual's characteristics are contrasted with thsoe of others recently encountered, who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
the tendency to create or find in another situatuion or individual that which one has expected to find
Attribution Theory
attempt to understand the cause of an event, assess responsibility for outcomes of the event, and assess the personal qualities of the people invlved
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else's behavior
Self-Serving Bias
tendency to deny personal responsibility for performance problems but to accept personal responsibility for performance success
forces within an individual that account for the level, direction and persistence of effort expended at work
Content Theories
profile different needs that may motivate individual behavior
Process Theories
seek to undestand the thought processes that determine behavior
Reinforcement Theories
emphasize the means through which the process of controlling an individual's behavior by manipulating its consequences takes place
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
offers a pyramid of physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs
Higher-Order Needs
in Maslow's hierarchy are esteem and self-actualization
Lower-Order Needs
in Maslow's hierarchy are physilogical, safety and social
Alderfer's ERG Theory
identifies existence, relatedness and growth needs
Existence Needs
desires for physiological and material well-being
Relatedness Needs
desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships
Growth Needs
desires for continued personal growth and development
Need for Achievement (nAch)
desire to do better, solve problems or master complex tasks
Need for Affiliation (nAff)
desire for friendly and warm relations with others
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
identifies job context as the source of job dissatisfaction and job content as the source of job satisfaction
Hygiene Factors
in the job context (Herzberg)-the work setting-are the sources of job dissatisfaction
Motivator Factors
in the job content (Herzberg)-the tasks people actually do-are sources of job satisfaction
Adam's Equity Theory
people will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received for their work in comparison with others
How to Restore Perceived Equity
change work inputs/change the outcomes received/leave the situation/change the comparison points/psychologically distort teh comparisons/take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
work motivation is determined by individual beliefs regarding effort/performance relationships and work outcomes
probability that work effort will be followed by performance accomplishment
probability that performance will lead to various work outcomes
value to the individual of various work outcomes
Extrinsic Rewards
given to the individual by some other person in the work setting
Intrinsic Rewards
received by the individual directly through task performance
administration of a consequence as a result of behavior
Classical Conditioning
form of learning through association that involves the manipulation of stimuli to influence behavior
something that incites action
Operant Conditioning
process of controlling behavior by manipulating, or "operating" on, its consequences
Law of Effect
obeservation that behavior that results in a pleasing outcome is likely to be repeated; behavior that results in an unpleasent outcome is not likely to be repeated
Organizational Behavior Modification (OB Mod)
systematic reinforcement of desirable work behaviro and teh non reinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior
Positive Reinfocement
administration of positive consequences that tend to increase the likelihood of repeating the behvior in similar settings
Law of Contingent Reinforcement
for a reward to have maximum reinforcing value, it must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited
Law of Immediate Reinforcement
the more immediate the deliver of a reward after the occurrence of a desirable behavior, the greater reinforcing effect on behavior
creation of a new behavior by the positive reinforcement of successive approxiamtions to the desired behavior
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcement schedule that administers a reward each time a desired behavior occurs
Intermittent Reinforcement
reinforcement schedule that rewards behavior only periodically
Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance)
withdrawal of negative consequences, which tends to increase the likelihood of repeatin the behavior in a similar setting
administration of negative consequences that tend to reduce the likelihood of repeatin the behavior in similar settings
withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior