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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
attribution theory
A theory that explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior and that of others.
behavioral measures
Personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation.
discounting principle
The assumption that an individual’s behavior is accounted for by the situation.
A preference indicating that an individual is energized by interaction with other people.
Making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way.
first-impression error
The tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior.
general self-efficacy
An individual’s general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations.
humanistic theory
The personality theory that emphasizes individual growth and improvement.
impression management
The process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them.
individual differences
The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another.
integrative approach
The broad theory that describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes.
interactional psychology
The psychological approach that emphasizes that in order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and about the situation.
A preference indicating that an individual is energized by time alone.
Gathering information through “sixth sense” and focusing on what could be rather than what actually exists.
Judging Preference
Preferring closure and completion in making decisions.
locus of control
An individual’s generalized belief about internal control (self-control) versus external control (control by the situation or by others).
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
An instrument developed to measure Carl Jung’s theory of individual differences.
negative affect
An individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.
Perceiving Preference
Preferring to explore many alternatives and flexibility.
A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior.
positive affect
An individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general.
Overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values, and behaviors.
projective test
A personality test that elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli.
psychodynamic theory
The personality theory that emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior.
selective perception
The process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints.
An individual’s general feeling of self-worth.
self-fulfilling prophecy
The situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled.
The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations.
self-report questionnaire
A common personality assessment that involves an individual’s responses to a series of questions.
self-serving bias
The tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes.
Gathering information through the five senses.
social perception
The process of interpreting information about another person.
A generalization about a group of people.
strong situation
A situation that overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior.
Making decisions in a logical, objective fashion.
trait theory
The personality theory that states that in order to understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits.