Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
components of the macroenvironment
social values, law and politics, demographics, technology, economy
components of the competitive environment
substitutes, rivals, suppliers, buyers, new entrants
groups and individuals who affect and are affected by the organization and its output
strategies for influencing the environment
cooperative action, independent action, moving to a different environment
cooperative action strategy
cooptation, contracting, coalition
negotiating agreement between parties
absorbing a new element
two or more organizations acting together to achieve common goal
independent action strategy
competitive aggression, competitive pacification, public relations, voluntary action, legal action, political action
competitive aggression
exploiting a distinctive competence (advertising)
competitive pacification
independent act to improve relations with competitors
public relations
establishing and maintaining a favorable public image
voluntary action
good PR, THON, Ron McDon House
legal action
controlling your rights
political action
campaigns, lobbying, endorsing
moving to a different environment
domain selection, diversification, mergers and acquisitions, divestiture
domain selection
choosing where
investing in different types of industries or products
mergers and acquisitions
combining firms, buying
selling off/getting out of a business
environmental attractiveness factors
competitors, substitutes, captial requirements, brand loyalty
strategic mgmt process
establish mission, analyze swot, strategy formulation, strategy implementation
swot analysis
analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats
bcg matrix
compares company's market growth and relative position, stars, cash cows, dogs, question marks
high market growth and strong relative position, IPod
cash cow
low market growth and strong relative position, Kleenex
question mark
high market growth and weak relative position, Barnes and
low market growth and weak relative position, Oldsmobile
corporate strategy alternatives
concentration, vertical integration, concentric diversification, conglomerate diversification
concentration strategy
an organization operates a single business and competes in a single industry
vertical integration strategy
an organization enters one or more busineses that are necesary for manufacturing or distributing its own products
concentric diversification strategy
an organization add snew businesses that produce related products or are involved in related markets and activities
conglomerate diversification strategy
an organiation adds new busineses tha produce unrelated products or are involved in unrelated markets and activities
strategies for managing the political environment
lobbying, pacs, strategic retreat, coalition building, stonewalling
spheres of economic influence
wto, nafta, apec, eu
world trade organization, 90% of world's trade
north american free trade agreement, world's richest in trade, US, Canada, and Mexico
asian pacific economic cooperation, over 50% of goods, 18 countries
european union, most change, affects the most, impact
factors of international market attractiveness
population, total and per capita GNP, economic stability, elgal system, geographic proximity, trade barriers, transportation, consumer behavior, competition, political stability, cultural access, support a rapid expansion into foreign markets, probability of losing a current technological advantage
organization models-international strategy
multinational, international, transnational, global
two factors of worldwide marketplace strategy
worldwide integration-single focus, common look, product, local responsiveness-one of a kind, unique
global model
views the world as a single market, operations are centrally controlled, high wi and low lr (mcdonalds)
multinational model
several subsidiaries operating as stand-alone busines units in multiple countries, low wi and high lr (shell)
international model
uses existing tech capabilities to expand into foreign markets, low wi and low lr (xerox)
transnational model
specialized facilities permit local responsiveness, complex coordination mechanisms provide global integration, high wi and lr (caterpillar)
modes of entry
exporting, licensing, franchising, joint venture, wholly owned subsidiary
make here, ship there
contractual agreement to let someone else do it (product)
contractual agreement to let someone else do it (service)
joint venture
contract between partners
wholly owned subsidiary
build and make there
host country nationals
natives of the country where an oversees subsidiary is located
parent-company nationals, a parent-comp national who is sent to work at a foreign subsidiary
third-country nationals
natives of a country other than the home or host country
most significant cause of international failure
lack of cultural awareness
nation's culture
shared knowledge, beliefs, and values, as well as common modes of behavior and ways of thinking about societal issues
hofstede's dimensions of cultural difference
power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity
power distance-dimension
extent to which a society accepts the fact taht power in organizations is distributed unequally (US-low)
uncertainty avoidance-dimension
extent to which people in a society feel threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations, in personality
extent to which people act on their own or as part of a group (union)
extent to which a society values quantity of life (masc.) over quality of life (fem)
composed of individuals and groups in order to achieve certain goals and objectives by means of differentiated functions that are rantionally coordinated and directed through time on a continuous basis
horizontal differentiation
aka differentiation, way tasks are broken up
vertical differentiation
integration, how tasks are coordinated
few levels of hierarchy (classroom, small business)
many layers of mgmt (banks)
hierarchical perspective
bottom: operational-daily, weekly (supervisor); middle: tactical-coordinate long and short (middle mgmt); top: strategic-long term (pres, vp, dean)
span of control
number of people reporting to a manger, size depends on the organization
mixed departmentalization
occurs in many large organizations, may have separte operating divisions but each depmts in the divisions may be organized differently
types of organization structure
functional, product, georgraphic, matrix, project team, collegial
all have + and -
functional structure
most common, grouped according to technical/specialty
adv-functional specialization
disadv-can lose product focus
line depts
make the product
staff depts
provide council and advice
product structure
grouping according to product or service, ex. GM-buick, cadillac, pontiac, etc
adv.-product focus
geographic structure
grouping org units by geographic locations
adv-local customer responsiveness, preferences
disadv-redundancy, lose corporate control
matrix organizations
characterized by dual reporting relationships in which some persons report to two supervisors-functional and product manager
adv-maximum flexibility for stocks, functional specialization, product focus
disadv-complicated, violates managerial rules?
project team structure
interdisciplinary specialists assigned to long-term project (acctg, manuf, mktg, engr, manuf)
collegial structure
non-pyramidal form, co-equal partners, ex. pediatricians
adv-most flexible, most communication
disadv-takes high credentials, can't do w/ large organization
application of structure
based on three variables: environment, goals of the org, technology
think of as transformation process, inputs to outputs
mechanistic work unit
highly formal, limited participation, dependent on supervisor, centralized, rules, titles, policy, procedures
organic work unit
informal, high participation, less dependent on supervisor, decentralized, status based on knowledge
organizational culture
a shared system of core values, a set of assumptions about the organization and its goals, that members of the company share, the way we do things around here, a set of shared beliefs communicated through a variety of symbolic media
visible culture
office layout, symbols, ceremonies, dress, slogans, parking spaces
invisible culture
expressed values, underlying assumptions and deep beliefs
components of organizational culture
(10), contribute to differences between organizations, individual initiative, risk tolerance, direction, integration, mgmt support, control, identity, reward system, conflict tolerance, communications style
coc-individual initiative
degree of autonomy, freedom, independence
coc-risk tolerance
degree to which employees are encouraged to take risks
clear performance objectives, targets
degree to which units are encouraged to work together
coc-mgmt support
trust, rapport, personal vs. cold
budget oriented
degree to which employees see themselves as part of the organization, affiliation
coc-reward system
based on merit, contribution, power?
coc-conflict tolerance
degree to which employees are encouraged to air differences
coc-communications style
sharing vs. talked down/directed
transmission of organizational culture
stories, legends, myths, rites and ceremonies: passage, enhancement, renewal, integration
facilitates transition (orientation)
emphasizing social identity (award banquet)
training programs
ex. bowling league
entrepreneurship (org)
the buying, selling, and bringing together of the factors of production
entrepreneurship (mod)
propensity to identify business opportunities and to take action to exploit those opportunities, future-oriented toward market opportunities and willing to take chances
traits and characteristics of the entrepreneur
a series of steps and procedures, an approach
entrepreneurial personality-5 traits
internal locus of control, tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty, motivation to excel, opportunity obsession
locus of control
deals with how individuals attribute responsibility for events in their lives, internals: effort, ability, work, knowledge; externals: luck, bosses, fate
entrepreneurial process-opportunity analysis
problem recognition-idea, information search-marketing, alternatives evaluation-options, purchase decision-packaging, postpurchase behavior-customer satisfaction
entrepreneurial hazards
bad idea, mortality, delegation, funding, planning and control
corporate entrepreneurship, the concept of suing entrepreneurial thinking within the complexity and bureaucracy of a large organization
intrapreneurship opportunities
administrative-procedures to allow for creativity, opportunistic-idea champion, acquisitive-buy small company who's doing it, imitative-barnes&