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29 Cards in this Set

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Performance management
the process through which managers ensure that employees' activities and outputs are congruent with the organization's goals
Performance appraisal
the process through which an organization gets information on how well an employee is doing his or her job
Performance feedback
the process of providing employees information regarding their performance effectiveness
Purposes of performance feedback
- strategic purpose
- administrative purpose
- developmental purpose
Performance measures criteria
- strategic congruence
- validity
- reliability
- acceptability
- specificity
Approaches to performance measurements
1. Comparative (ranking)approach
- ranking
- forced distribution
- paired comparison

2. Attribute approach
- graphic rating scales

3. Behavioral approach
- critical incidents
- behavioral anchored rating scales
- behavioral observation scales

4. Results approach
- management by objectives
5. Quality approach
Ranking
simple - ranks employees from highest to lowest performance

alternation ranking- crossing off the best and worst employees
Forced distribution
employees are ranked in groups
Paired comparison
managers compare every employee with every other employee in the work group
Graphic rating scales
- a list of traits is evaluated by a five-point rating scale
-legally questionable
Critical incidents approach
requires managers to keep records of specific examples of effective and ineffective performance
Management by objectives
top management passes down company's strategic goals to next layer of management, and these managers define the goals they must achieve
Quality approach
a performance management system designed with a strong quality orientation can be expected to:
- emphasize an assessment of both person and system factors in the measurement system.
- emphasize that managers and employees work together to solve performance problems
- involve both internal and external customers in setting standards and measuring performance
- use multiple sources to evaluate person and system factors
Sources for performance information
- managers
- peers
- subordinates
- self
- customers
Rater Errors
- similar to me
- contrast
- distributional errors
- halo and horns
Reducing rater error
- rater error training
- rater accuracy training
Appraisal politics
a situation in which evaluators purposefully distort ratings to achieve personal or company goals
Improving performance feedback
- feedback should be given frequently, not once a year
- create the right context for the discussion
- ask employee to rate his or her performance before the session
- encourage the subordinate to participate in the session
- recognize effective performance through praise
- focus on solving problems
- focus feedback on behavior or results, not on the person
- minimize criticism
- agree to specific goals and set a date to review progress
Factors to consider in analyzing poor performance
- input
- employee characteristics
- feedback
- performance standards/goals
- consequences
strategic purpose
to identify employees' strengths and weaknesses, link employees to appropriate training and development activity, and reward good performance with pay and other incentives
administrative purpose
salary administration, promotions, retention-termination, layoffs and recognition of individual performance
developmental purpose
develop employees who are effective at their jobs with feedback to improve performance
strategic congruence
the extent to which the performance management system elicits job performance that is consistent with the organization's strategy, goals, and culture
validity
the extent to which a performance measure asses all the relevant aspects of job performance
reliability
the consistency of a performance measure; the degree to which a performance measure is free from random error
acceptability
the extent to which a performance measure is deemed to be satisfactory or adequate by those who use it
specificity
the extent to which a performance measure gives detailed guidance to employees about what is expected of them and how they can meet these expectations
behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS)
builds on the critical incidents approach; designed to specifically define performance dimensions by developing behavioral anchors associated with different levels of performance
behavioral observation scaled (BOS)
variation of BARS; rather than discarding a large number of the behaviors that exemplify effective or ineffective performance, a ___ uses many of hem to more specifically define all the behaviors that are necessary for effective performance

rather than assessing which behavior best reflects an individual's performance, a ___ requires managers to rate the frequency with which the employee has exhibited each behavior during the rating period.