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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MOTIVATION
process of arousing and sustaining goal oriented behavior
THEORY X
Set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs
THEORY Y
Set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY
behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social and psychological needs by higher order needs
MOTIVATION/HYGEINE FACTORS
work condition related to satisfaction of the need for psychological growth

work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain
VALENCE
value or importance one places on a paritcular reward ET
INSTRUMENTALITY
belief that performance is related to reward ET
NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals on issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties NT
NEED FOR POWER
Socialized or personalized, benefit to many or personal gain of individual NT
NEED FOR AFFILIATION
concerned with establishing and maintaining warm, close, intimate relationships with other people NT
EQUITY THEORY
People are motivated when they find themselves in a state of inequity
EXPECTANCY THEORY
Focus on personal perceptions of the performance process
Blieve that people desire certain outcomes of behavior and performance (rewards and punishment)
Believe that there are relationships between the effort they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes they receive
MORAL MATURITY
measure of a person's cognitive moral development, act on universally ethical principles
OPERANT CONDITIONING
process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behavior
REINFORCEMENT – POSITIVE/NEGATIVE
bestowing postive consequences
withholding negative consequences
PUNISHMENT – POSITIVE/NEGATIVE
Postive consequences
Negative consequences
EXTINCTION
the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences
SELF-EFFICACY
an individuals beliefs and expectanacies about his/her abilities to perform a specific task effectively

prior experiences
behavior models
persuasion from other people
assesment of current physical and emotional capabilities
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO)
Goal setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers

Individual sets goals and organization then plans
BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Learning occurs through the observation of other people and the modeling of their behavior
ATTRIBUTION THEORY–CONSENSUS, DISTINCTIVENESS, CONSISTENCY
Managers make inferences concerning employees' behavior and performance

the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in a similar fashion

the degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations

frequency of a particular behavior over time
PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS
intended to improve the ccuracy of measure performance and increase its agreement with actual performance, extent of agreement= true assessment
5 core characteristics of performance appraisals
RELIABILITY, VALIDITY,
RESPONSIVENESS, FLEXIBILITY, EQUITABILITY
ENTITLEMENT
individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of his/her comparison other
STRESS
unconscious perparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand
STRESSOR
the person or event that triggers the stress response
DISTRESS
refers to the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral and organizational consequneces that MAY occur as a result of stressful events
EUSTRESS
Healthy, normal stress
TYPE A BEHAVIOR PATTERN
complex of personality and behavioral characteristics including competitveness, time urgency, social status, insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements
PERSONALITY HARDINESS
personality resistant to distress and characterized by commitment, control, and challenge
TRANSFORMATIONAL COPING VS. REGRESSIVE COPING
Changing an event into something less subjectively stressful

Decreasing interaction with the environment
PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY PREVENTIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT
reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand

Alter/modify/eliminate the individual or organizations response to a particular demand

intended to heal individual or organizational symptos of distress and strain
JOB STRAIN MODEL
Combination of high job demands and restricted job decision latitude or worker control leads to higher job strain
SELF-RELIANCE, COUNTER-DEPENDENCE, OVER-DEPENDENCE
healthy, secure, and interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others

insecure, fearless, aggressive and actively powerful response

clinging to other people an anyway possible
GROUPS VS. TEAMS
two or more people having common interests, objectives and continuing interaction (individual accountability emphasized)

group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (collectivism emphasized)
GROUP COHESIVENESS – CHARACTERISTICS/CONSEQUENCES
interpersonal glue that makes members of a group stick together
FORMAL VS INFORMAL GROUPS
official and assigned

not assigned (evolve in work setting)
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Mutual acceptance

Decision making

Motivation and Commitment

Control and Sanctions
CHARACTERISTICS OF A MATURE GROUP
Purpose and mission

Behavioral norms

Group Cohesion

Status structure

Task and Maintenance fuctions
TASK VS MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS
directly related to the effective completion of the team's work

satisfying interpersonal relationships within a group or team
QUALITY TEAMS/QUALITY CIRCLES/SELF-MANAGED TEAMS
team that is part of an organization's structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regarding product and service quality

Work voluntary on company time address work related issues less formal power

Teams that make decisions that were once reserved to managers
PSYCHOLOGICAL INTIMACY
emotional and psychological closeness to other team or group members
INTEGRATED INVOLVEMENT
closeness achived through tasks and activities
behavior and activity based
EMPOWERMENT – NECESSARY SKILLS
Competence
Process-negotiating
Development of cooperative and helping behavior
Communication skills- self-expression and reflective listening
SEASONS OF A CEO’S TENURE
Peaks at about 7 years

Response to a mandate
experimntation
Selection of an enduring theme
convergence
dysfunction
TRANSFORMATIONAL COPING VS. REGRESSIVE COPING
Changing an event into something less subjectively stressful

Decreasing interaction with the environment
PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY PREVENTIVE STRESS MANAGEMENT
reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand

Alter/modify/eliminate the individual or organizations response to a particular demand

intended to heal individual or organizational symptos of distress and strain
JOB STRAIN MODEL
Combination of high job demands and restricted job decision latitude or worker control leads to higher job strain
SELF-RELIANCE, COUNTER-DEPENDENCE, OVER-DEPENDENCE
healthy, secure, and interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others

insecure, fearless, aggressive and actively powerful response

clinging to other people an anyway possible
GROUPS VS. TEAMS
two or more people having common interests, objectives and continuing interaction (individual accountability emphasized)

group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (collectivism emphasized)
GROUP COHESIVENESS – CHARACTERISTICS/CONSEQUENCES
interpersonal glue that makes members of a group stick together
FORMAL VS INFORMAL GROUPS
official and assigned

not assigned (evolve in work setting)
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Mutual acceptance

Decision making

Motivation and Commitment

Control and Sanctions
CHARACTERISTICS OF A MATURE GROUP
Purpose and mission

Behavioral norms

Group Cohesion

Status structure

Task and Maintenance fuctions
TASK VS MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS
directly related to the effective completion of the team's work

satisfying interpersonal relationships within a group or team
QUALITY TEAMS/QUALITY CIRCLES/SELF-MANAGED TEAMS
team that is part of an organization's structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regarding product and service quality

Work voluntary on company time address work related issues less formal power

Teams that make decisions that were once reserved to managers
PSYCHOLOGICAL INTIMACY
emotional and psychological closeness to other team or group members
INTEGRATED INVOLVEMENT
closeness achived through tasks and activities
behavior and activity based
EMPOWERMENT – NECESSARY SKILLS
Competence
Process-negotiating
Development of cooperative and helping behavior
Communication skills- self-expression and reflective listening
SEASONS OF A CEO’S TENURE
Peaks at about 7 years
UPPER ECHELON THEORY
background characteristics of top management eteam can predict organizational characteristics
WILD TURKEY
challenges thinking of CEO
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
focus on the efficient use of labor

work simplification
JOB ENLARGEMENT/JOB ROTATION
method of job design that increases the number of tasks in a job

a variation of job enlargement, exposes a worker to a variety of specialized job tasks over time
JOB ENRICHMENT
incorporating motivational factors to a job
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
skill variety
task identity
task significance
autonomy
feedback from job itself
SOCIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL (SIP)
emphasizes the interpersonal aspects of work design

other peole provide cues we use to understand the work environment, judge what is is important, how theysee our jobs, positive and negative feedback help us understand our feelings about our jobs