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207 Cards in this Set

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Motivations that comes from actions taken by another person.
External Motivation
Motivation that comes from the satisfaction that occurs when a job or task is performed.
Internal Motivation
A set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines direction, intensity, and persistence.
Motivation
Job performance is largely a function of these two factors?
Motivation and Ability
Theory X and Y to motivation?
McGregor
Workers compare their situation of Outcomes ($) to Inputs (hours) to co workers to determine whether they are being treated equitably.
Equity theory (Adams)
OUTCOME/INPUTS of self = OUTCOMES/INPUT of others
Equity
OUTCOME/INPUTS of self < OUTCOMES/INPUT of others
Negative Equity
OUTCOME/INPUTS of self > OUTCOMES/INPUT of others
Positive Equity
(McGregor) dislike work, has no ambition wants no responsibility, rather follow the lead, must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards org obj's, and resist change.
Theory X
(mcGregor) Work can be as natural as play and rest, people are self controlled and self directed to meet their work obj's if they're committed to them, people usually accept and often seek responsibility, creativity and ingenuity are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an org problem.
Theory Y
Comes from money, praise. These type of people may also only enjoy certain activities because they want certain rewards.
External Motivated People
Reflects the desire to do something because it is enjoyable, not because of praise or rewards.
Internally Motivated People
What is self motivation?
Self incentive
When is carrots and stick approach effective?
Mechanical tasks, rewards don't undermine individuals intrinsic rewards (dull tasks have little intrinsic value to undermine)
When is carrots and stick approach NOT effective?
When tasks have cognitive skill, this approach leads to poorer performance.
Pay for performance has a negative impact on performance besides
Mechanical tasks
Why would people not feel positive inequity
Rationalization
7 Deadly flaws to carrots and sticks
1. kills motivation
2. Diminish performance
3. Crush creativity
4. Crowd out good behavior
5. Encourages cheating and unethical behavior
6. Can become addictive
7. Can foster short term thinking
Pushing employees to either Theory X or Y depends wholly on who?
Managers
Four dimensions of justice that can be used to describe how fairly an employees are treated by authorities
distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational
Individuals Effort-(EXPECTANCY)-Individuals Performance-(INSTRUMENTALITY)-Organizational Rewards-(VALENCE)-Personal Goals
Expectancy Theory I (Vroom)
If I give a maximum effort, will it be recognized?
Expectancy
If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational reward?
Instrumentality
If I'm rewarded, are the rewards ones that I find personally attractive?
Valance
Theory that explains how an employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing.
Expectancy
The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success.
Self efficacy
The perception of employees whether they will actually receive what they desire, even if it has been promised by management.
Instrumentality
Reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance (can be +,-, or 0)
Valence
Leaves opportunities to be disappointed at every stage.
Expectancy Theory I
Individual Effort (then) Individual Performance
Expectancy Theory II
If you have dealt with similar situations in the past and deal with stress well you have:
High Self Efficacy
What makes some outcomes more "positively valanced" than others?
Outcomes are deemed more attractive when they satisfy needs
What are cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences?
Needs
Maslow was incorrect because he
You have to have the block below to build on before building up
Self Actualization (self fulfillment)
Esteem (recognition)
Belongingness (friendship)
Safety (physical)
Physiological Need (food)
Maslow Needs Heirarchy
Need for food, shelter, safety and protection required for human existence.
Existence (physiological, safety)
Need to create and maintain lasting, positive, interpersonal relationships.
Relatedness (love, belongingness)
Need to be able to predict and control one's future.
Control (autonomy, responsibility)
Need to hold high evaluation of oneself and to feel effective and respected by others.
Esteem (self regard, growth)
Need to perform tasks that one cares about and that appeal to one's ideals and sense of purpose.
Meaning (self-actualization)
Motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward.
Intrinsic Motivation
Pay, bonuses, promotions, benefits & perks, rewards, praise, job security, support, free time
Examples of extrinsic outcomes
Employment, interestingness, accomplishment, knowledge gain, skill development, personal expression
Examples of intrinsic outcomes
Lack of disciplinary action, demotion, and terminations.
Extrinsic outcomes
Lack of boredom, anxiety, and frustration
Intrinsic outcomes
Leads to higher performance and helps motivate people
Goal Setting Theory I (Locke)
oMust be specific, challenging, and have clear feedback
Goals
Clarifies expectations, makes it easier to judge amount of effort required, encourages persistence
How setting goals helps motivate people
Goals should be SMART
specific, measurable, attainable, result orientated, time bound
Every employee must be committed to the goal and they must provide feedback
Goal Setting Theory II
Personal goal
Individual goal
type of goal that only satisfies only 1 member of group (doesn't affect others)
Analogous
type of goal that when achieved satisfies individual and group
Common goals (hard to find examples of in work place)
type of goal where only one person is satisfied and the rest of the group is DIS satisfied
Competitive goals
Clues to talent?
Rapid learning (important indicator) and satisfaction (what they enjoy)
How to motivate employees without additional payment?
Common goals, challenging tasks/goals, recognition, possibility to realize personal goals, autonomy, mastery.
Team where each person knows which role he/she plays best and where they're cast in that role most of the time.
Definition of an excellent team (built around individual excellence)
What determines attitudes towards others?
Culture, education, personal experience, temperament, mood, appearance.
How to make subordinates favorites?
Change your patterns and systems to match theirs, this is the only successful way to accomplish this feat.
Organized and Non Organized
Classifications of groups.
Organized groups can be segmented into these:
Formal (organization chart) and informal (who works well together)
Expected patterns or behaviors based on a given position in a social unit
Group roles
People play multiple ____, people learn these from stimuli around them, people shift these rapidly according to sit demands, people experience conflict when one contradicts another.
Roles
Acceptable standards of behavior shared by the members of a group.
Group norms
When accepted by the group, these can influence the group's behavior with a minimum of external controls.
Group norms
Groups will exert pressure for members to conform to these, since members desire acceptance by the group, they are susceptible to these conformity pressures.
Group norms
Organized spontaneously, flexible, hidden, and dependent on group members.
Informal relationships
Specified before, non flexible, transparent and not depends on group members.
Formal relationships
Two types of informal group relationships
Immediate and common goal mediate relationships.
Impossible to stop these relationships from developing.
Informal relationships.
(Jacob Moreno) Closely associated with small group research and a focus on interpersonal choices. Largely subjective but empirical.
sociometry
Surveys administered to determine the direction of certain relationships, although sometimes this can be assessed through simple observation.
Sociometric tests
Various graphical methods of date presentation.
Sociometric representation
Types of sociometric diagrams used to discover a subgroup of people with defined sympathy relationships.
Star (center of attention), Pair (like to work 2gether), Chain (friend of a friend of a friend but may not be a friend), Isolate (no one likes them).
Asking negative questions, i.e. who would you NOT or would NEVER will have what affect on relationships?
Destroy relationships. Instead ask WOULD.
Typical team behaviors
Orient, flow, build success/failure (typical usually fails)
Ted's team behaviors
Prototype-revise-prototype-revise (high rewards, low productivity)
Different stages of team development
Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing-Adjourning
Less linear team development, can end up in a situation where the team hits a tipping point
Punctuated equilibrium
With these types of goals there is no changes in inter personals relationships
Analogous goals
With these types of goals a group will end up with bad interpersonal relationships
Competitive goals
These type of goals can increase relationships (due to everyone needing eachother)
Common goals
Common Goal side affects
Group cooperation, interdependence, group efficacy, group cohesion, common system of value, voice, mutual understanding
Belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals.
Self efficacy
Belief that one has the capabilities to execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situations.
Self efficacy
Group members collective estimate of the groups ability to perform a specific task
Group efficacy
Set of methods, instruments, tools and a ways to attain a common goal (depends on group goal and group background)
System of values
Three types of individual behaviors that depend on group pressures
Suggestibility
Less linear team development, can end up in a situation where the team hits a tipping point
Punctuated equilibrium
With these types of goals there is no changes in inter personals relationships
Analogous goals
With these types of goals a group will end up with bad interpersonal relationships
Competitive goals
These type of goals can increase relationships (due to everyone needing eachother)
Common goals
Common Goal side affects
Group cooperation, interdependence, group efficacy, group cohesion, common system of value, voice, mutual understanding
Belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals.
Self efficacy
Belief that one has the capabilities to execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situations.
Self efficacy
Group members collective estimate of the groups ability to perform a specific task
Group efficacy
Set of methods, instruments, tools and a ways to attain a common goal (depends on group goal and group background)
System of values
Three types of individual behaviors that depend on group pressures
Suggestibility, comfortableness, non comfortableness
a result of group pressure-an individual perceives the world as the group described him/her. Highest level of dependency.
Suggestibility (highest level of group dependency)
expressing an agreement with a group opinion having in reality disagreement in opinion
Comformableness (mid level of group dependency)
a person expresses his/her opinion independently on group opinion
Non conformableness (lowest level of group dependency)
How to persuade people
strong arguments and logical demonstration, show personal/emotional involvement, use appropriate presentation technique.
3 effective communication channels pepe can be divided into
People who appeal to reason, feeling or actions.
To communicate with this type of person you should be specific w/ logic
People who appeal to
To communicate with this type of person you should be nice and give compliments
People who appeal to feelings
To communicate with this type of person you should start with a question then give specific actions
People who appeal to actions
6 typical communication barrier
status effect, semnatcic effect, cognitive dissonance, lack of feedback, poor communication channels, differing perceptions
Person that acts more important than others in order to put them down
status effect
Using "big words" in order to look smarter than everyone else
Semantic behaviors
Using messages that contradict each other
Cognitive dissonance
People who cannot accept feedback, people who look internally (mirror effect), individuals that love themselves
Lack of feedback
Speaking w/out gestures, not suing any emotion
Poor communication channels
Know who your audience is and try not to break cultural traditions
Difereing perceptions caused by social and cultural backgrounds
Differences-Emotional Burst-then either analyze the result or search for solution then resolution
Evolution of a conflict
#1 and #2 places to be "handling-conflict modes" Assertiveness vs. Cooperativeness (Thomas Kilmann)
#1 Collaboration (win-win situation)(high assertive & high co-op) #2 Compromising (common ground)(mid & mid)
Four principles of conflict negotiation (Fisher and Ury)
Separate the problem from the people, focus on interests, generate options for mutual gain, use objective criteria
Motivation has what correlation on job performance and org commitment
High & moderate
Theory acknowledges that motivation doesn't just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people
Equity theory
SET of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates works-related effort & determines its direction, intensity and persistence
Motivation
What does motivation determine w/ effort?
Direction
Intensity
Persistence
Theory that describes cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses?
Expectancy theory
Effort->Performance->Outcomes
E->P
Represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes
Instrumentality
Performance->Outcomes
P->O
Reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance
Valence
Can be either + or - or 0
3 possible outcomes of equity theory comparisons
Equity U = O
Underreward U < O
Overreward U > O
3 possible outcomes of equity theory comparisons
Equity U = O
Underreward U < O
Overreward U > O
Team of 2 or more who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task oriented purpose.
Team
Team of 2 or more who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task oriented purpose.
Team
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is to produce goods and services
Work teams
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is to produce goods and services
Work teams
3 possible outcomes of equity theory comparisons
Equity U = O
Underreward U < O
Overreward U > O
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is involvement in tasks that affect the entire organization
Management teams
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is involvement in tasks that affect the entire organization
Management teams
Team of 2 or more who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task oriented purpose.
Team
team composed of individuals from various jobs that provide recommendations to mgrs about important issues that run "_____" to the org's production process
Parallel
team composed of individuals from various jobs that provide recommendations to mgrs about important issues that run "_____" to the org's production process
Parallel
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is to produce goods and services
Work teams
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is involvement in tasks that affect the entire organization
Management teams
team composed of individuals from various jobs that provide recommendations to mgrs about important issues that run "_____" to the org's production process
Parallel
3 possible outcomes of equity theory comparisons
Equity U = O
Underreward U < O
Overreward U > O
3 possible outcomes of equity theory comparisons
Equity U = O
Underreward U < O
Overreward U > O
Team of 2 or more who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task oriented purpose.
Team
Team of 2 or more who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task oriented purpose.
Team
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is to produce goods and services
Work teams
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is to produce goods and services
Work teams
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is involvement in tasks that affect the entire organization
Management teams
relatively permanent teams who's purpose it is involvement in tasks that affect the entire organization
Management teams
team composed of individuals from various jobs that provide recommendations to mgrs about important issues that run "_____" to the org's production process
Parallel
team composed of individuals from various jobs that provide recommendations to mgrs about important issues that run "_____" to the org's production process
Parallel
Teams formed to take on 1 time tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of tng and expertise
Project teams
Team formed to performed tasks that are normally limited in duration
Action teams
Refers to degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish team work.
Task interdependence
Type of task interdependence with the lowest degree of required coordination
Pooled interdependence
Type of interdependence in which different tasks are done in a prescribed order, and the group is structured such that mbrs specialize in these tasks
Sequential interdependence
Type of task interdependence in which members perform specialized tasks but with a subset of other members to complete team's work.
Reciprocal interdependence
Type of task interdependence that requires the highest level of interaction and coordination among members.
Comprehensive interdependence
Type of task interdependence that exists when members may have a shared vision of the teams goals and align their individual goals to them.
Goal interdependence
What is team composition made up of?
member roles
member ability
member personality
team diversity
team size
The likelihood that a team can work together effectively into the future
Team viability
Task interdependence has what correlation to team performance and team commitment?
Moderat and weak
A design of team rewards in which members receive rewards that are dependent on both their team's performance and how well they perform as individuals.
Hybrid outcome interdependence
Reflects different ties of communication, activities, and interactions that occur within teams that contribute to their ultimate end goals.
Team process
Getting more from a team than you would expect according to the capabilities of the individual members
Process gain
Getting less from a team than you would expect according to the capabilities of the individual members
Process loss
Activity that consumes time and energy that could have otherwise been devoted to the task (even though it may be necessary)
Coordination loss
Activities of tams members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks.
Task work processes
Inferences with a message being transmitted
Noise
Amount of depth of info that gets transmitted in a message
Info richness
Team work processes have what correlation on team performance and team commitment
Moderate and Strong
This formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within a co
Org structure
Drawing that represents every job in the organization and the formal reporting relationships between those jobs.
Org chart
The degree to which tasks in an organization are ivied into separate jobs
Work specialization
Answere the question of "who reports to whom" and signifies formal authority relationships
Chain of command
Reps how many employees each mgr in the organization has responsibility for
Span of control
Refers to where decisions are formally made in organizations
Centralization
The degree to which rules and procedures are used to standardize behaviors and decisions in an organization
Formalization
Efficient, rigid, predictable, and standardized org
Mechanistic org
Flexible, adaptive, outward focused orgs that thrive in dynamic environments
Organic orgs
Process of creating, selecting, or changing the design of an organization
Org design
An org's customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, and other factors external to the firm and impact it's design.
Business environment
An org's objectives and goals and how it tries to capitalize on its assets to make money
Company strategy
Method by which an org transforms inputs into outputs
Technology
An organizational form that exhibits many of the facets of the mechanistic org
Bureaucratic structure
Different types of functional and multi-dimensional structures
Functional
Product
Geographic
Client based
Matrix
Process of changing an organizations structure
Restructuring
Restructuring has what negative correlation on job performance and organizational commitment
Weak and moderate
Type of departmentalization that groups jobs by function that they perform?
Functional Structure
S: Obtains efficiencies, easy trig, less overlap, comm w/in dept, controls from top
W:Narrow focus, hard to tn generalists, coordination of diff dpts
Basis on which work or individuals pare grouped into manageable units.
Departmentalization.
Jobs grouped by product line in which each major product area is placed under the authority of a manager whom is responsible for all aspects of the product line?
Product Structure
S:Focus attention onto the actual activity, easy adoption, effective coord, decentralization of authority
W: Overlapping, Comm amongst diff divisions, lack of specialization
Group jobs on the basis of territory or geography.
Geographical Departmentalization
Groups jobs on the basis of a common set of needs or specific customers.
Customer Departmentalization
An attempt to combine advantages of the pure functional structure and the product org structure
Matrix Structure
S: Fast changing, maximize resources, take part on other prom's, develop proj fund and prom skills, flexibility
W:No teams, multiple systems of authority, conflict of interests among mgrs
Consists on a small numbers of executives and outside contractors.
Virtual Structure
The line on which orders and decisions are passed down from top to bottom of the hierarchy.
Chain of Command
Chain of command presupposes 2 principles?
Authority and Unity-of-Command
The rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the order to be obeyed?
Authority
Principle that helps preserve the concept of an unbroken line of authority. States that a person should have one and only 1 supervisor.
Unity of Command
Number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct.
Span of Control
The more the wider
The less the narrower
The retention of decision-making authority by top mgt
Centralization
Mgmt shares decision making authority with lower levels employees
Decentralization
Degree to which jobs within the org are standardized
Formalization
(Inevitable as an org grows)
Solving problems by applying rules, procedures, and processes
Standardization
An org with high deg of rigidity, complexity, formalization, and centralization?
Bureaucracy
An org with low level of rigidity, complexity, formalization, and centralization?
Adhocracy
Org design that emphasizes structured activities, specialized tasks, and centralized decision making
Mechanistic Structure
Org design that emphasizes teamwork, open communication, and decentralized decision making
Organic Structure