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24 Cards in this Set

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What are the SI unites of energy?
Energy - the joule (kg*m^2/s^2)
What is 1mL equivalent to?
1 mL = 1 cm^3 = 1cc
What is an angstrom (convention for atomic radii and bond lengths)?
Angstrom = 10^-10 m
What is density? What is the density of water in g/cm and kg/m^3?
ρ=mass/volume (g/cm^3 = 1000 kg/m^3)
How is a molecule formed?
Molecule is formed when 2 or more atoms form a covalent bond.
What is an atomic mass unit equal to?
Atomic mass unit: equal to exactly 1/12 mass of an atom of C-12.
Formula vs molecular weight ?
- When compound exists as discrete molecules, the term molecular weight is usually used instead of formula weight (ie. H2O)
- Formula weight usually used for ionic compounds (NaCl)
How many molecules are in one mole? What is the formula for # of moles?
- Avogadro's number (NA)= 6.02 x 10^23 entities.
- # moles = mass in grams / MW
How many grams in one mole of carbon?
1 mole of Carbon-12 is 12 grams.
What is an empirical formula?
Empirical formula (reduced molecular formula)
What does balancing chemical equations illustrate? What law?
Balanced chemical equation illustrates Law of Conservation of Mass (or of Matter) -- the amnt of matter (and mass) doesn't change in a chemical reaction.
What is the limiting reagent?
Reagent that is consumed first, not necessarily the reactant that's initially present in the smallest amount.
Notations of Solid, liquid, gas, aqueous, catalyst, and heat?
Solid (s), liquid (l), gas (g), aqueous (aq), heat (Δ). Catalyst: write below the arrow in the equation.
What is the oxidation state (oxidation #)?
- indicate how the atom's "ownership" of its valence electrons change it forms a compound.
- The oxidation state of an atom is the "charge" it would have if the compound were ionic.
- In otherwords: oxidation state of an atom in a mol is the charge it would have if all the shared electrons were completely transferred to the more electronegative element.
When oxidation state is postive or negative, what does this reflect?
- Postive: giving up ownership of its valence electrons
- Negative: receiving ownership of its valence electrons
Oxidation state rules and exceptions:
1) Sum of oxidation states of the atoms in a neutral molecules must always be 0, and the sum of the oxidation state of the atoms in an ion must always equal the ion's charge.
2) Group 1 metals have a +1 oxidation state, and Group 2 metals have a +2 oxidation state.
3) Fluorine has a -1 oxidation state.
4) Hydrogen has a +1 oxidation state.
5) Oxygen has a -2 oxidation state.
6) Group 7 atoms (halogens) have a -1 oxidation state. Group 6 atoms (the oxygen family), have a -2 oxidation state.
Exceptions:
§ Execption to Rules 4 and 5:
- in peroxides (s.a. H2O2 or Na2O2), oxygen is in a -1 state
- in metal hydrides (s.a. NaH and AlH4-), H is in a -1 oxidation state
* Following rules would be fine b/c Rule 2 takes precedence over Rule 4.
For a transition metal, how do you label it in regards to oxidation state?
Oxidation # of a transition metal is given as a Roman numeral in the name of the compound.
§ FeCl2: iron(II) chloride
§ FeCl3: iron(III) chloride
What are the oxidation states of:
§ O in O2
§ Fe in Fe_3O_4
§ O in O2: each oxygen has an oxidation state of 0.
§ Fe in Fe_3O_4: Fe has oxidation state of 8/3.
What is an acid anhydride?
- Acid anhydrides are two acid molecules that are linked with an ester-like bond with the loss of water.
- They are very reactive, and will regenerate the acids used to form them when water is added.
- This relationship for the acid anhydride in Q22 of chem1 is seen above.
1) They have plane of symmetry.
2) HAVE TWO CHIRAL CENTERS.
To tell if the above are meso compounds, what must you check?
B; REMEMBER YOU NEED TO ALPHABETIZE (not including prefixes)
IUPAC Name?
B;
First you want to minimize charge separation. Also want negative charge on the more electronegative atom; BUT MOST OF ALL, IF YOU CAN FORM OCTET FOR ALL THATS THE BEST!
more stable resonance?
E. Because it has the worst of the two leaving groups; and steric interaction (branching) make it a bad substrate.
Which substrate is LEAST reactive to SN2 reaction?
C;
- Cis compounds are compounds in which the substituents (methyl groups in this case) are on the same side of the molecule in question.
- Only in the compound shown in choice C are both methyl groups equatorial, and on opposite sides of the molecule (trans). Note that this molecule would still be trans if both methyl groups had been portrayed in the axial position.
All of the following represent cis1,4 EXCEPT...