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131 Cards in this Set

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PCM
Pulse Code Modulation
Where do you configure TCP/IP Settings in Windows 95?
Go to Control Panel, then
Network
PCMCIA
-
Proprietary
Proprietary is the opposite of open. Proprietary means that one or a small group of companies control all usage of a technology. Open means that free usage of a technology is available to the public.
TDM
Time Devision Multiplexing.
What should you consider when buying a Network Interface Card?
The NIC, or LAN Adapter, provides communication capabilities to and from a PC. Be sure to get the right NIC for the right cable connector, i.e., RJ-45 VS BNC.
FDDI
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. An ANSI/ISO standard that defines a 100 Mbps LAN over a fiber optic medium using a timed token over a dual ring of trees.
What is Layer n Protocol?
The rules and conventions used in this communication in specific layers are known as Layer n Protocol. The rules by which layer n source communicate with layer n destination.
Compare PC Components with Laptop components.
Main difference is size of components. Expansion slots become PCMCIA slots, where NIC's, modems, hard drives and other useful devices, usually the size of a credit card can be inserted into the PCMCIA slots along the perimeter.
DNS
Domain Name System
What is a plug in?
Plug ins are Applications programs that run proprietary files that web browsers are unable to interpret.
TCP/IP Model Internet Layer:
Sends source packets from any network on internetwork to arrive at destination inependent of route to get there. Governed by IP. Best path determination and packet switching. Similar to postal system (regular mail).
What are some things to check when trouble shooting a PC or a Network?
List in order
User
Network Connection
Hardware
Software
Importance of Bandwidth
Finite;
Saves money;
Key measure of network design and performance;
Key to understanding the inet;
Demand increases constantly.
What units measure the quantity of information?
Bits per second.
What is important when selecting a network card?
Type of network (ethernet, token right of FDDI)
Type of media (twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber-optic cable)
Type of system bus (PCI or ISA)
What are the small discrete components of a computer system?
Small discrete components:
Transistor
Integrated Circuit (IC)
Resistor
Capacitor
Connector
Light Emitting Diode.
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
The data delivered as a single unit between peer processes on different computers. An OSI term for information at any layer in the OSI model. Information exchanged between layers during peer to peer communications.
Explain Read Only Memory?
ROM is computer memory on which data has been pre-recorded; once data has been written onto a ROM chip it cannot be removed and can only be read.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
What are the Backplane components?
The Backplane components are: Backplane
Network card video card
Define bandwidth and how it is measured.
Bandwidth is the mearsurement of how much information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Bits per second (bps)
What is a monitor connector?
.
Explain Binary number system.
Computers recognize and process data using the binary (base 2) number system, which uses only two symbols, 0 and 1 instead of the 10 symbols used in the decimal numbering system. The positon or place of each digit represents the number 2 - the base number - raised to a power (exponent), based on its postion.
What is ASCII and it's funtion?
American Standard Code for Infomration Interchange provides mapping between numeric codes and graphical characters. Used universally for PC and non-IBM mainframe applications.
TCP/IP Model Application Layer:
Includes session and presentation layer details; handles all high level protocols, issues of representation, encoding and dialog control. The TCP/IP combines all application related issues into one layer and assures the data is properly packaged for the next layer.
What is the Session Layer Function?
Session management and dialogue control; manages data exchange and synchronizes dialogues between presentation layer entities; establishes, manages and terminates sessions between applications. Provides service to the Presentation Layer.
TCP/IP Model Network Access Layer:
Also called host to network layer. Concerned with all issues IP packet requires to make physical links. Includes LAN & WAN technology & details in OSI physical and data link layers.
What are Personal Computer Subsystems?
PC Subsytems:
Printed Circuit Boards
CD-ROM Drive
CPU - Central Processing Unit
Floppy and hard disk drives
Microprocessor
Motherboard
Bus
RAM & ROM
System Unit
Expansion Slots
Power Supply
The TCP/IP Model
Created by DOD to survive any conditions - contains four layers:
Application;
Transport;
Internet;
Network Access.
What is the Sound Card?
The Sound Card is an expansion board that enables a computer to manipulate and output sounds.
Local Area Networks are designed to do the following:
Operate within a limited geographic area;
allow many suers to access high bandwidth media;
provide full time connectivity to local services;
connect physically adjacent devices;
Conrol network privately under local administration.
List examples of outgoing ports on a PC?
Serial
Parallel
NIC
Mouse
Power Cord
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
Explain a parrallel port?
An interface capable of transferring more than one bit simultaneously and which is used to connect external devices such as printers.
Datagram or Packet
Name for data in Network Layer
What is a Bit?
A Bit is a binary digit used in the binary numbering system - It can be 1 or 0.
Throughput Variables
The PC (client);
The server;
Other users;
Routing within the 'Cloud';
The design (topology) of all networks involved;
Type of data beign trainsferred;
Time of day.
What is a motherboard?
A motherboard is the main circuit board of a microbomputer.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Define Protocol. How do network devices use it.
Protocol is a set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network exchange information. It makes communications on a network more efficient by determining format and transmission of data. Layer n on one computer communicates with Layer n on another.
Typical Media Bandwidth
50 Ohm Coaxial Cable
10BASE2, ThinNet
10 - 100 Mbps 185 m
What are Expansion Slots?
An opening in a computer where a circuit board can be inserted to add new capabilities to the computer.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
What is the Physical Layer Function?
Signal encoding, media and connectors. Provides physical addressing (MAC address), network topology, and media access (interface to cable); uses frames.
Discuss Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
TCP.IP provides transport funtions to ensrue that the total amount of bytes sent is received correctly. It is a routable protocol and the IP part provides this capability by accepting packets from TCP or UDP, adds its own header and deleivers a datagram to the data link layer protocol. It may also break the packet into fragments to support the maximum transmission usnit (MTU) of the network.
What is the funtion of the Application Layer?
Closest to the user. Differs from the other layers by not providing any service to other layers but only to applications outside the OSI model. Provides network services to user applications, but not to the other layers; identifies & establishes availability of inteneded communication partners, synchronizes coop a;;lications, establishes agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity (i.e.: e-mail).
List WAN Technologies and bandwidth.
Unswitched private lines:
T1 24 X 64 Kbps = 1.5 Mbps
T3 672 X 64 Kbps = 44.7 Mbps
Fractional T1 N X 64 Kbps
DSL 144 Kbps to 52 Mbps

SWITCHED SERVICES:
Dial-up 9.6, 14.4, 28.8, 33.6, 56 Kbps
ISDN BRI 64 - 128 Kbps
PRI 1.544 Mbps
Switched 56/64 56Kbps, 64Kbps
Packet switched (X.25) 56Kbps
Frame relay 56 Kbps - 45 Mbps
SMDS 45, 155 Mbps
ATM 25, 45, 155, 622, 2488 mBPS
Explain Binary
Binary Code is a numbering system characterized by 1s and 0s based on the power of 2.
Similiarities between OSI and TCP/IP Models
-both have layers;
-both have application layers, they they include very different services;
-packet-switched (non circuit switched) technology is assumed;
-networking professionals need to understand both.
What is the System Unit?
The System Unit is the main part of a PC; it includes the chasis, microprocessor, main memory, bus and ports, but does not include the keyboard or monitor, or any external devices connected to the computer.
Segment
Name for grouping of data at Layer 4 PDU, after Layers 7, 6 and 5 have added their information.
What is a Printed Circuit Board?
A PCI is
Frame
Name for data in Data Link Layer
What is a microprocessor?
A silicon chip that contains a CPU.
Wide Area Networks are designed to:
Operate over lagre geographical area;
Allow access over serial interfaces operating at lower speeds;
Provide full time and part time connectivity;
Connect devices seraparted over wide, even global areas.
Why are there different bandwidths?
There is one for analog signals and one for digital signals. Diggerent measurements of bandwidth measure flow in different media.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
How do Light emitting diodes work?
Light Emitting Diodes (LED's)
Explain bandwidth importance.
Bandwidth determines how much data can be sent, and therefor how fast. It is a key component in any network.
What is a network card?
A network card is an expansion board inserted into a computer so taht the computer can be connected to a network.
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Explain a Resistor?
A resistor is a device made of material which opposes the flow of electric current.
What are the advantages of breaking a network into seven layers:
Reduces complexity;
Standardizes interface of network components to allow multiple vendor development and support;
Facilitates modular engineering;
ensures interoperable technology;
accelerates evolution;
simplifies teaching and learning.
What is Random Access Memory?
RAM is a memory media that can have new data written into it as well as stored data read from it. A drawback is that electrical power must be supplied continously to maintain, unless the data has been saved to a disk.
What is an Interrupt Request?
An IRQ or Interrupt Request is the means by which a device and the processor get each others attention.
Explain LAN.
A Local Area Network connects workstations, terminals and other devices in a geographically limited area (up to a couple thousand meters)
Wide Area Networks use the following devices:
Router
Comm. Server
Modem CSU/DSU TA/NT1
WAN Bandwidth Switch
What are the Backplane components?
The Backplane components are: Backplane
Network card
video card
sound card
parallel port
serial port
mouse port
power cord
Peer to Peer Communication is:
Each layers protocol exchanges information called protocol data units (PDU's) between peer layers. Each layer on the source computer communicates with a layer specific PDU and its peer layer on the destination computer.
What is the Transport Layer Function?
Reliable end-to-end connection between programs/processes. Provides mechanism for flow control and error checking; establishes, maintains and terminates virtual circuits; uses segments.
Local Area Network devices:
Routers
Ethernet Switches
HUB
Bridge
ATM Switch
What is the Network Layer Function?
Logical addressing and routing. Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems; uses packets.
Bandwidth
Measure of how much info can flow from one pt to another per unit of time. Two common uses: analog signals and digital signals. Network technology deals only with digital.
What is the Data Link Layer Function?
Frame transmission and reception. Provides connectivity and path selection between two systems; uses packets.
List LAN Technologies and respective bandwidth.
Ethernet 10Mbps
Switched Ethernet 10 Mbps
Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps
10 Gig Ethernet 10,000 Mbps
Token Ring 4, 16 Mbps
Fast Token Ring 100, 128 Mbps
FDDL/CDDL 100 Mbps
What is data throughput and how does it related to bandwidth?
Bandwidth limitations are both physical and technological. Throughput refers to actual measured bandwidth at a specific time of day, using specific internet routes, while downloading a specific file. Determined by: devices, type of data, topology, number of users, users computer, server computer, power and weather conditions.
What is an Interrupt Request?
An IRQ or Interrupt Request is the means by which a device and the processor get each others attention.
What is the separation of networking functions called?
In the OSI model, separation of networking funcitons is called layering.
Explain bandwidth importance.
Bandwidth determines how much data can be sent, and therefor how fast. It is a key component in any network.
What is the Backplane
The backplane is the large circuit board that contains sockets for expansion cards.
Media examples
telephone wires;
Category 5 UTP (for 10BASE-T Ethernet);
Coaxial Cables (Cable TV);
Optical fibers (thin glass fibers that carry light);
the atmosphere (carries radio waves, microwaves and light);
Electromagnetic waves
How is a PC similar to a network?
Both have internal components which are connected by some type of medium (cable vs. bus).
File Transfer Time Calcs
Best Download T = S/BW
Typical Download T = S/P
BW - Max theoretical bandwidth of slowest link;
P - Actual throughput at the moment of transfer;
T - Tiem for file transfer to occur;
S - File size.
Explain a floppy disk drive.
-
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
What is a capacitor/
A capacitor is an electronic component that stores enery in the form of an electrostatic field; it consistes of two conduction metal plates serparated by an insulating material?
List LAN Technologies and respective bandwidth.
Ethernet 10Mbps
Switched Ethernet 10 Mbps
Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps
10 Gig Ethernet 10,000 Mbps
Token Ring 4, 16 Mbps
Fast Token Ring 100, 128 Mbps
FDDl/CDDl 100 Mbps
What is teh source address on a data packet?
The specific identity of the computer sending the packet.
What is the Presentation Layer Function?
Data translation, conversion, encryption, decryption & compression. Translates between multiple data formats (i.e.: ASCII, EBCIDIC); data structures and negotiation of data transfer syntax. Ensures that the infomration sent by application layer of one system is readable by the application layer of another system.
What limits bandwidth?
Only technology and the laws of physics limit bandwitdh.
Explain a hard disk drive.
The device that reads and writes data onto a hard disk. A PC subsystem.
What is encapsulation?
Encapsulation is a process to package data. Wraps data with necessary protocol information before network transit. The process in which data is wrapped in a particular protocol header before it is sent across the network.
Explain an Integrated Circuit.
An Integrated Circuit (IC) is
TCP/IP Model Transport Layer:
Quality of service issues. Reliability, flow control, error correction. TCP provides excellent flexible ways to create reliable well flowing low error network communication. Connection oriented protocol dialogues between source and destination while packaging application layer information into units called segments. Layer 4 segments travel back/forth between hosts to connection exists logically.
What is a Bus?
A Bus is a common physical signal path composd of wirs and other media across which signals can be sent from one part of a computer to another. AKA a highway.
Common WAN technoloies include:
Modems
ISDN
DSL
Frame Relay
ATM
The T (U.S.) and E (Europe) Carrier Series: T1, E1, T3, E3
SONET
What is an NIC?
A Network Interface Card is a printed circuit board that provides network communication.
SONET
Synchronous Optical Network
What is a Serial Port?
An interface that can be used for serial communications, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time.
How is binary represented?
0 or 1
voltage or no voltage
0 volts or 5 volts
Explain Protocol.
Protocol is a set of rules that make communication on a network more efficiently.
What 3 things need to be considered when sending a file over a network?
File Size
Available Bandwidth
Available Throughput
How do binary numbers represent alphanumeric data?
Binary numbers represent alphanumeric data, keyboard and control characters of the ASCII Chart, one of several character encoding systems used in LAN's.
Uncharged = 0, Charged = 1;
8 bits = 1 Byte;
2 4 bit nibbles = 1 Byte
Differences between TCP/IP and OSI Models:
TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into it applicaiton layer;
TCP/IP combines the OSI datalink and physical layers into one layer;
TCP/IP appears simpler because it has fewer layers;
TCP/IP protocols are teh standards around which the internet developed, so the TCP/IP model gains credibility just because of it's protocols. Though typically networks are not build on the OSI protocol.
Explain Throughput.
Throughput is the amount of data that actually travels thru the media.
Bits 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 s
Name for data in Physical layer
What is a video card?
A Video Card is a board that plugs into the PC to give it display capabilities.
Define Network Card
A network card communicates with a network thru a serial connection and with the computer thru a parallel connection.
What is a Byte?
A byte is a series of consecutive binary digits operated on as a unit.
Message
Name for data in Application, Presentation and Session Layers
What is a Wide Area Network?
A WAN is a network that operates over a large geographic area that might incluce cities or countries.
Define and discuss a 'packet'.
Logical grouping of information, includes header containing control info and (usually) user data. Most often refer to Network layer units of data. Datagram, frame, message, and segment also describe data groupings at various layers of the OSI model.
What are the major components of a PC?
PC Major Components include:
CPU, CD-ROM, Floppy, Hard drive, Bus and Power Supply.
Describe Ring Topology
A ring topology connects one host to teh next and the last host to the first, creating a physical ring of cable.
What defines a network as a LAN?
LAN's operate within a limited geographic area and allow many users access to high bandwidth, provided full-time connectivity and connect physically adgacent devices.
Advantages of OSI Model:
Accelerates learning;
Simplifies learning;
Reduces complexity;
Promotes symmetry in internetorking functions so they interoperate;
Helps networks evolve quickly;
Defines standard interfaces for compatibility among vendors;
Divides the interrelated aspects of netwrok operation into less complex elements;
What is the information flow in an idealized computer?
Information flow
Describe Bus Topology
Bus topology uses a single backbone segment of cable that all the hosts connect to directly.
What is the relationship of NIC's to PC's?
NIC's provide network communicatin capabilities to and from a PC. NIC allows host to connect to a network an dis therefore considered a key component.
Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP Models:
Application: FTP, TFTP, HTTP, SMTP, DS, TELNET, SNMP
Presentation & Session:
Very little focus
Transport: TCP (The Internet)
Network: IP (The Internet)
Data LInk & Physical:
Ethernet (common LAN Technology)
Destination address
Specific identity of the computer receiving the data.
Describe Extended Star Topology
Extended Star Topology uses the star topology to be created and links the individual stars together by linking the hums/switches. This will extend the length and size of the network.
Networking Media definition and examples.
The materials that data travels through including telephone lines, Cat 5 UTP, coaxial, fibre camle, atmosphere and other wireless media.
What is a data packet?
A data packet is a logically grouped unit of information that moves between computer systems.
What is the OSI Model?
The primary reference model for network communication. It is a method of illustrating how information travels through a network. It is used to describe networks.
Describe hierarchical topology
A hierarchical topology is created similar to extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together, the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology.
What is the Header for on a data packet?
It has control information that tells the network where to send the packet. It is placed before the data in the packet.
Five Conversion Steps to Encapsulate Data:
1. Build the Data;
2. Package data for end-to-end transport;
3. Append (add) the network address to the header;
4. Append (add) the local address to teh data link header;
5. Convert to bits for transmissin.
Describe Star Topology
Star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration, usually a hum or switch.
Describe Mesh Topology
Mesh Topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications (i.e. at nuclear plants). Each host has its own connectins to all other hosts. This reflects the design o fhte internet which has multiple paths to any one location.