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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the similarities and differences in such characteristics as age, gender, ethnic heritage, physical abilities and disabilities, race, and sexual orientation among the employees of organizations
workforce diversity
tend to become rigid judgments about others that ignore the specific person and the current situation. Acceptance of stereotypes can lead to the dangerous process of prejudice toward others
judgments about others tat reinforce beliefs about superiority and inferiority
putting an end to the assumption that everyone who is not a member of the dominant group must assimilate
valuing diversity
the process through which members of a minority group are forced to learn the ways of the dominant group
the extent to which people place primary value on themselves
the extent to which people emphasize the good of the group or society
the extent to which less powerful individuals accept the unequal distribution of power
power distance (orientation authority)
the extent to which people prefer to be in unambiguous situations
uncertainty avoidance (preference for stability)
the extent to which the dominant values in a society emphasize aggressiveness and the acquisition of money and material goods over concern for people, relationships among people and the overall quality of life
masculinity (assertiveness or materialism)
people who focus on the future
long-term orientation
people who focus on the past or present
short-term orientation
factors that are either inborn or exert extraordinary influence on early socialization: age, race and ethnicity, gender, physical and mental abilities and sexual orientation
primary dimensions of diversity
factors that are important to us as individuals and that to some extent define us to others but are less permanent and can be adapted or changed; educational background, geographical location, income, marital status, military experience, parental status, religious beliefs, and work experience
secondary dimensions of diversity
has six characteristics: pluralism, full structural integration, full integration of informal networks, an absence of prejudice and discrimination, equal identification among employees with organizational goals for majority and minority groups, and low levels of intergroup conflict
multicultural organization
diverse membership and takes steps to fully involve all people who differ from the dominant group
pluralistic organization
a group of people working together to attain common goals
objectives that management seeks to achieve in pursuing the firm's purpose
organizational goals
the system of task, reporting, and authority relationships within which the organization does its work
organization structure
a diagram showing all people, positions, reporting relationships and lines of formal communication in the organization
organization chart
reflects the division of labor and the means of coordinating the divided tasks
organization configuration, shape
the way the organization's work is divided into different jobs to be done by different people
division of labor
the manner in which divided tasks are combined and allocated to work groups
the number of people who report to a manager
span of control
the system of reporting relationships n the organization, from the lowest to the highest managerial levles
administrative hierarchy
power that has been legitimized within a particular social context
an obligation to do something with the expectation some act or output will result
the transfer to others of authority to make decisions and use organizational resources
says that the authority of a manager depends on the subordinate's acceptance of the manager's right to give directives and expect compliance with them
acceptance theory of authority
decision-making authority is concentrated at the top of the organizational hierarchy
the degree to which rules and procedures shape the jobs and activities of employees
an approach to organization design where prescriptions or propositions are designed to work in any circumstances
universal approach
characterized by a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules and procedures designed to create an optimally effective system for large organizations
ideal bureaucracy
set forth by Henri Fayol include planning, organizing, command, coordination, and control
management functions
Rensis Likert's approach based on supportive relationships, participation, and overlapping work groups
human organization
the desired outcomes for the organization can be achieved in several ways
contingency approach
the plans and actions necessary to achieve organizational goals
size, technology, and environment are three primary determinants of organization sructure
structural imperatives
aims to reduce the size of corporate staff and middle management to reduce costs
organizational downsizing
refers to the mechanical and intellectual processes that transform inputs into outputs
organizational technology
has little specialization or formalization; power and decision making are concentrated in the chief executive
simple structure
work is highly specialized and formalized, and decision making is usually concentrated at the top
machine bureaucracy
characterized by horizontal specialization by professional areas of expertise, little formalization, and decentralized decision making
professional bureaucracy
divided according to the different markets served; horizontal and vertical specialization exists between divisions and headquarters, decision making is divided between headquarters and divisions, and outputs are standardized
divisionalized form
decision making is spread throughout the organization, power resides with the experts, horizontal and vertical specialization exists, and there is little formalization
combines two different designs to gain the benefits of each; typically combined are a product or project departmentalization scheme and a functional structure
matrix design
the set of values, often taken for granted and communicated through stories and other symbolic means, that helps the organization's employees understand which actions are considered acceptable and which unacceptable
organization culture
usually refers to current situations in the organization and the linkages among work groups, employees, and work performance
organization climate
the basic beliefs about an organization's environment that shape its strategy
strategic values
the values that employees need to have and act on for the organization to implement as strategic values
cultural values
committed to retaining employees; evaluates workers' performance based on both qualitative and quantitative information; emphasizes broad career paths; exercises control through informal, implicit mechanisms; requires that decision making occur in groups and be based on full information sharing and consensus; expects individuals to take responsibility for decisions; and emphasizes concern for people
type z firm
the process of creating and doing new things that are introduced into the marketplace as products, processes, or services
a major breakthrough that changes or creates whole industries
radical innovation
creates a new functionality by assembling parts in new ways
systems innovation
continues the technical improvements and extends the applications of radical and systems innovations
incremental innovation
entrepreneurial activity that takes place within the context of a large corporation
the extent to which the dynamics of an organization's decision-making processes are judged to be fair by those most affected by them
procedural justice
the process through which individuals become social beings
the process through which employees learn about the firm's culture and pass their knowledge and understanding on to others
organizational socialization
the process of becoming aware of the need for change
the movement from an old way of doing things to a new way. this may be the adoption of any new idea, process, or procedure that requires organizational participants to alter how they do their jobs
the process of making new behaviors relatively permanent and resistant to further change
a person responsible for managing a change effort
change agent
the process of systematically planning, organizing, and implementing change
transition management
the process of planned change and improvement of the organization through application of knowledge of the behavioral sciences
organization development
a systemwide organization development involving a major restructuring of the organization or instituting programs such as quality of worklife
structural change
the extent to which workers can satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization
quality of work life
occurs because several organizational systems and processes exist to make sure that workers do a specific job in a certain way. In order to change the way an employee does her or his job, we must change all of those systems or processes that determine how an employee does the job
overdetermination, structural inertia