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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an individual's response to a strong stimulus
stress
strong stimulus that results in stress
stressor
a cycle through which stress occurs: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
extremely competitive, are very devoted to work, and have a strong sense of time urgency
Type A individuals
less competitive, are less devoted to work, and have a weaker sense of time urgency
Type B individuals
a sense of exhaustion that develops when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time
burnout
a desirable objective
goal
the extent to which people believe they can accomplish their goals even if the failed to do so in the past
self-efficacy
the extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort
goal difficulty
the clarity and precision of a goal
goal specificity
the extent to which a person accepts a goal as his or her own
goal acceptance
the extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal
goal committment
a collaborative goal-setting process through which organizational goals cascade down throughout the organization
management by objectives (MOB)
the process by which a manager(1) evaluates employee's work behaviors by measurement and comparison with previously established standards, (2) documents the results, and (3) communicates the results to the employee
performance measurement, or performance appraisal
comprises the processes and activities involved in performance appraisals
performance management system (PMS)
a performance management system in which people receive performance feedback from those on all sides of them in the organization: their boss, their colleagues and peers, and their own subordinates
360-degree feedback
consists of all organizational components, including people, processes, rules and procedures, and decision-making activities, involved in allocating compensation and benefits to employees in exchange for their contributions to the organization
reward system
objective meaning or work of a reward
surface value of a reward
subjective and personal meaning or worth of a reward
symbolic value of a reward
total array of money (wages, salary or commission), incentives, benefits, perquisites, and awards provided by the organization
compensation package
plan in which employees can earn additional compensation in return for certain types of performance
incentive system
refers to non wage or salary compensation such as paid time off and insurance coverage
indirect compensation (benefits)
special privileges awarded to selected members of an organization, usually top managers
perquisites
allows employees to choose the combination of benefits that best suits their needs
flexible reward system
social process in which two or more parties exchange information and share meaning
communication
the individual, group or organization interested in communicating something to another party
source
process by which the message is translated from an idea or a thought into transmittable symbols
encoding
process through which the symbols that represent the message are sent to the receiver
transmission
the channel, or path, through which the message is transmitted
medium
process by which the receiver of the message interprets its meaning
decoding
the individual, group, or organization that perceives the encoded symbols; the receiver may or may not decode them to try to understand the intended message
receiver
process in which the receiver returns a message to the sender indicating receipt and understanding of the message
feedback
any disturbance in the communication process that interferes with or distorts communication
noise
disturbance in communication that is primarily a function of the medium
channel noise
information flows between the person at the end of each spoke and the person in the middle
wheel network
each member communicates with the person above and below, except for the individuals on each end, who communicate with only one person
chain network
each member communicates with the people on both sides but with no one else
circle network
all members communicate with all other members
all-channel network
has a strategic position in the network that allows him or her to control information moving in either direction through a channel
gatekeeper
serves as a bridge between groups, tying groups together and facilitating the communication flow needed to integrate group activities
liaison
links the organization to the external environment and may also be an opinion leader in the group
cosmpolite
tend to work alone and to interact and communicate little with others
isolate and the isolate dyad
the degree of correspondence between the message intended by the source and the message understood by the receiver
communication fidelity
the study of language forms
semantics
the specialized or technical language of a trade, field, profession, or social group
jargon
the feedback portion of communication in which the receiver sends a message to the source indicating receipt of the message and the degree to which he or she understood it
verification
an informal system of communication that coexists with the formal system
grapevine
two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person
group
formed by an organization to do its work
formal group
relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationships and is usually included in the organization chart
command group
relatively temporary, formal group established to do a specific task
task, or special-project, group
a collection of employees from the same level in the organization who meet on a regular basis to share information, capture emerging opportunities, and solve problems
affinity group
established by its members
informal group
relatively permanent and informal, and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members
friendship group
relatively temporary and informal, and is organized around an activity or interest shared by its members
interest group
members share information about themselves and get to know one another
mutual acceptance stage
members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group goals and individual roles in the group
communication and decision-making stage
members cooperate, help one another, and work toward accomplishing tasks
motivation and productivity stage
the group is mature; members work together and are flexible, adaptive, and self-correcting
control and organization stage
composition, size, norms, and cohesiveness--affect the success of the group in fulfilling its goals
group performance factors
the degree of similarity or difference among group members on factors important to the group's work
group composition
the number of members of the group; group size affects the number of resources available to perform the task
group size
the tendency of some members of groups to put forth less effort in a group than they would when working alone
social loafing
a standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is judged
norm
the extent to which a group is committed to staying together
group cohesiveness
occurs when a group's overriding concern is a unanimous decision rather than critical analysis of alternatives
group think
disagreement among parties
conflict
the extent to which the goals of more than one person or group can be achieved at the same time
goal compatibility
occurs when the interacting parties' goals are incompatible and the interaction among groups is relatively unimportant to the attainment of the goals
avoidance
occurs when the parties' goals are compatible and the interaction among groups is relatively unimportant to the goals' attainment
accommodation
occurs when the parties' goals are incompatible and the interactions among groups are important to meeting goals
competition
occurs when the interaction among groups is very important to goal attainment and the goals are compatible
collaboration
occurs when the interaction is moderately important to meeting goals, and the goals are neither completely compatible nor completely incompatible
compromise
occurs when a manager resolves a conflict that has become harmful or serious
conflict resolution
the creation and constructive use of conflict by a manager
conflict stimulation
an organizational goal that is more important to the well being of the organization and its members than the more specific goals of interacting parties
superordinate goal
a position for a person or group that coordinates the activities of two or more organizational groups
linking role