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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The dependent variable is assumed to be the
effect
According to differential association theory, criminal behavior is
learned
Suppose the police arrive at the scene of a car accident. The car is too damaged to drive and the police believe that the driver is intoxicated. They see no liquor in the passenger compartment. Under which of the following exceptions might police be able to make a warrantless search of the trunk?
search incident to an arrest
An Ex Post Facto Law
is unconstitutional and applies to the states through the 14th amendment.
The Court's acceptance of DNA testing was based on the ________ standard whereby a new technology must be sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance in the field of application.
Frye
Police must observe the requirements imposed by the Miranda rule only when
Look this one up in the book
Insanity is a legal defense in criminal cases. Once the issue of insanity has been raised by the defense, the burdon of proving the defendant's sanity shifts to
the defense
Where there is no probable cause for an arrest, but the officer reasonably believes in light of his experience and training that criminal activity may be in progress, a person may be stopped in accordance with Terry v. Ohio if
the sole justification for the search would be the protection of the officer and others nearby
Probably the most important factor to consider when making the decision to parole or release an offender from an institution is the offender's
age
The conditional release, by an administrative act, of a convicted offender from a penal institution is usually referred to as
parole
A sentence of imprisonment in which the duration is not fixed by the court is the
indeterminate sentence
An independent variable is assumed to be the
cause
What is it called when a victim receives money from the state to pay for damages associated with a crime?
victims compensation
What are the two basic components of correctional treatment?
community-based corrections and secure confinement
Which is considered to be the most severe form of punishment on the punishment ladder
boot camps
Which of the following is NOT a Routine Investigative Action performed by an investigator as stated in the "Criminal Investigation Process"?
checking blood for a DNA match
0 out of 2 points
Prior to the Supreme Court's ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright, indigent persons enjoyed all of the following rights to counsel except
the right to have counsel appointed to represent them at trial if they were unable to rep
Protection against double jeopardy is provided in the
5th and 6th amendments.
No level of suspicion is required to
approach a person on a public street and ask for identification.
Theories which view criminal behavior as a result of forces operating in deteriorated and depressed lower class areas are known as what?
social structure theories
When the circumstances permit, the preferred method ofmaking a search is
with a search warrant
Whose writings serve the basis for all conflict theory?
Marx
Which theory stems from Cesare Lombroso's famous work?
biological trait theory
Nolle prosequi:
is the same as an acquittal
Social disorganization theory links crime rates to what?
neighborhood ecological characteristics
Which of the following cases established the concept of "the fruit of the poisonous tree
Wong Sun v. United States
The use of forfeiture in American law has been reintroduced with the passage of what law
the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization act
Awarding prisoners days off of their sentences for maintaining appropriate behavior is a practice referred to as
good time/gain time
Social process theorists focus their attention on what factors?
the socialization of the youth and their developmental factors
The opportunity reduction approach to crime prevention strategies includes one of the oldest and most widely used tactics ____________________. From castle moats to deadbolt locks, these measures are designed to remove access to or to increase the physical security of certain property.
target hardening
At which of the following stages does the correctional process formally begin
conviction
Social conflict theory considers true crimes to be
racism
Strain theory has its roots in the concept of
anomie
State one example of a Part II offense.
kidnapping, embezzlement, etc. etc. (Instructor will hand score)
The Bill of Rights contains _____ amendments that refer to procedural safeguards.
4
Give one example of a white collar crime.
tax evasion, fraud, computer crimes, etc.
Speedy trial falls under what amendment
6th
An integrated model of crime involves the ideas that
Look up
What do the initials NIBRS stand for
National Incident Based Reporting System
What is the standard of proof for civil law
preponderence of evidence
Due process falls under what two amendments
5th/14th
Alcohol intoxication can be used as a defense when
Its Involuntary
State one example of a Part I crime.
murder, rape, aggravated battery, arson, motor vehicle theft, robbery, larceny, burglary
The Chicago School showed a correlation between crime and
Look up
Public order crime is often technically referred to as
victimless crimes
Social process theories include
Look up
The Department of Homeland Security includes the
Look up
In the Reform Era of policing, police
Look up
The Broken Windows theory
is based on order maintenance
Kreb's Cycle
step after glycolysis
occurs in the mitochondria
produces 2 ATP
General patrol is
both random and preventive
The case of Katz v. U.S. established the standard for
reasonable expectation of privacy
What law enforcement agency typically maintains the county jail
county sheriff
Police cynicism
considers citizens to be weak and dangerous
Some steps in DNA profiling are
Look up
Municipal law enforcers usually police what areas of a state
cities
Searches incidental to an arrest are valid when
police need to find a weapon a suspect may be carrying and there is a need to protect evidence on the suspect from being destroyed
In the Community Era of policing, the police
Look up
What amendment does search and seizure fall under?
4th
What level of evidence is needed for an arrest warrant
probable cause