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20 Cards in this Set

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Metre in Latin Verse
Each line of Latin has metrical scheme: its DIVIDED into fixed number of METRA or 'feet' (like bars in music)
HEXAMETER VERSE divided into SIX METRA PER LINE
PENTAMETER VERSE divided into TWO LOTS of TWO AND A HALF METRA PER LINE
Within in each metron, individual SYLLABLES of words treated as
SHORT
or LONG
whole metron composed of differing number of short and long syllables
Dactyl
ONE LONG syllable followed by TWO SHORT syllables
Spondee
TWO LONG syllables
Trochee
ONE LONG syllable followed by ONE SHORT syllable
Iambus
ONE SHORT syllable followed by ONE LONG syllable
Anapaest
TWO SHORT syllables followed by ONE LONG syllable
Tribrach
THREE SHORT syllables
A syllable is long if it ends in
a) A LONG VOWEL or DIPHTHONG (two vowels combined to form one sound e.g. scri-bAE)
b) TWO CONSONANTS or a COMPOUND CONSONANT, such as 'x' (= 'k' + 's'), e.g. daNT, duX
c) A SINGLE CONSONANT FOLLOWED BY SYLLABLE BEGINNING WITH A CONSONANT (even if syllable is at start of new word) e.g. muL-Tos, campuS Patet
A syllable is short if
it doesn't fit it into any of the categories for 'long syllables'
Scansion
The marking of the rhythm of a line of verse
Elision
A vowel at the end of a word was so lightly pronounced that, if a vowel at beginning of next word, first vowel ignored in scansion e.g.
Phyllid(a) am/(o) ant(e) ali/as
elided vowels shown in brackets
Crasis/ecthlipsis
A vowel plus 'm' at end of word was ignored e.g.
O cu/ras homin/(um), O quant/(um) est in/rebus in/ane
ignored letters shown in brackets
Caesura
Grammatical break/sense of pause in longer lines of verse e.g. pentameter/hexameter
Marked by //
If a line has a very dactylic rhythm it is
'LIGHT'
reflects a FASTER PACE than line with very spondaic rhythm
often used to suggest
LIGHT-HEARTED/JOYOUS MOOD
RAPIDLY/DRAMATICALLY CHANGING SITUATION
DANCING, GALLOPING, WAVES of the SEA
If a line has a very spondaic rhythm it is
'HEAVY'
reflects a SLOWER PACE than line with very dactylic rhythm
often used to suggest
SOMBRE/MOURNFUL MOOD
SLOWLY CHANGING SITUATION
HARSH LABOUR
TROUBLES/FEARS
HEAVY FOOTSTEPS
A line of hexameter is scanned
1st foot: dactyl or spondee
2nd foot: dactyl or spondee
3rd foot: dactyl or spondee
4th foot: dactyl or spondee
5th foot: always a dactyl
6th foot: trochee or spondee
Caesura comes somewhere in middle of 3rd foot (sometimes twice in line, somewhere in middle of 2nd and 4th feet)
Thus:
A line of pentameter is scanned
1st foot: dactyl or spondee
2nd foot: dactyl or spondee
1/2 foot: one long syllable
3rd foot: always a dactyl
4th foot: always a dactyl
1/2 foot: one long or short syllable
Caesura always comes after 2 1/2 feet
Thus:
Hexameters are used in
'Baucis and Philemon', Ovid
'The town mouse and the country mouse', Horace
because they are metre of EPIC POETRY
Elegiac couplets
ALTERNATING LINES of HEXAMETER verse and PENTAMETER verse
Elegiac couplets are used in
'The city, hour by hour', Martial
'The sights, sounds and seasons of the countryside', Ovid