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148 Cards in this Set

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If you were observing weather in Lima Peru your would be in the _____ hemisphere and _______ hemisphere
Southern, Western
Galveston time is _____ local time in Greenwich England
earlier then
Order of concentration (high to low) 3 abundant permanent gases in atmosphere
Nitrogen, oxygen, argon
Layer of atmosphere containing 75% of the mass of the atmosphere
troposphere
Atmospheric properties that decrease continuously with altitude
Pressure, density
Layer of atmosphere containing 75% of the mass of the atmosphere
Troposphere
Weather one would expect in high pressure area
Clear and dry
Melting of ice is a _____process for the atmosphere
cooling
sinking_____air by_____
Heats, Compression
Light with wavelength longer than red
Infrared (none of the above)
temp difference between 306K and 50F
23C
Wavelength of maximum radiation
Decreases with increasing temperature
Irregular heating of the Earth's surface could result from:
Curvature of the Earth, thickness of atmosphere, length of day
(all of the above)
The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5* with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. if the amount of tilt were increased to 40* we would expect____ in the middle lats
Hotter summers and colder winters
Gas that shows the most variation from place to place and time to time
water vapor
Original stages of the present atmosphere was missing____ which is an important gas now
Free oxygen
Representative value of a sealevel atmospheric pressure is _____
1010
Direction used for describing the direction of the wind is the direction _____ which the wind blows
from
Where cold front is overtaking a warm front
occluded front
Generally weather moves from ____ to ____ in the middle lats
West, East
Property of a substance that determines the rate of temperature change with heat flow
Specific Heat
Heat transfer process that moves heated air and water from low latitude to high latitude
Advection
If the temperature of a surface were to double, the rate of radiation flow would:
increase 16 times
The Earth's radiation is in the _____ part of the energy spectrum
longwave
Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect the Earth's temp would be
Lower
the diurnal temp variation at the surface would be at a maximum when the winds are______ and the sky is _______
calm, clear
Albedo is a measure of the ______ of a surface
reflectivity
Insolation is _________
radiation from the sun
The heat source for the atmosphere is _________
(all of the above)
temp is the measure of the ________ energy of something
kinetic
arguably the most important weather variable_______
none of the above
water vapor content in the atmosphere would decrease with____and______
altitude, latitude (both a and b)
land is much less effective in heat storage than water b/c of its____
low specific heat, immobility, opaqueness (all of the above)
the curvature of the earth decreases the effectiveness of solar radiation striking the surface of the earth by____ with increasing latitude
increased refelectivity
the only substance near the earths surface that is found naturally in the atmosphere as a solid,liquid, and a gas_____
water
The primary source of oxygen for the earths atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be_____
photosynthesis
Much of Tibet lies at altitudes over 18000 feet where the pressure is about 500mb at such altitudes the Tibetans are above roughly____ of the air molecules in the atmosphere
50%
which of the following weather elements always decreases with increasing altitude
pressure
the cold feeling you get after leaving a pool on a hot dry summer day represents heat transport by
latent heat flux
how do red and blue light differ
wavelength of red light is longer
Often before sunrise on a clear calm cold morning ice can be seen on the windshield of parked cars even when the temp is above freezing. This condition happens b/c the tops of the cars are cooling by
radiation
If the earths average surface temp were to increase the amount of radiation emitted from earths surface would___ and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward____ wavelengths
increase, shorter
the earths atmosphere window is in the____ region
infrared
Suppose last night was clear and calm. Tonight low clouds will be present. From this you would conclude that tonight’s minimum temp will be___ last nights temp
higher than
clouds____infared radiation and ___ visible radiation
absorb,reflect
solar panels on a solar home built in the southern hemisphere should face
north
the most important reason why summers in the southern hemisphere are not warmer than summers in the northern hemisphere is that
over 80% of the southern hemispher is coverd with water
although the polar regions radiate more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the____
circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans
The property that gives water its anomalous properties is the ________ of its molecules
Polarity
The ratio of the mass of the water vapor compared to the mass of the moist air is the_______
Specific humidity
When the actual amount of water vapor in an air parcel is equal to its capacity, which of the following are true
the air is at saturation, the air temperature equals the dew point, condensation will occur if the air rises (all of the above)
Which of the following would be independent of changes in altitude.
Specific humidity
At a given pressure, the capacity is determined by _______
Temperature
________ is necessary for condensation to occur
A nucleus of condensation
Conditions that would favor the formation of radiation fog would occur on a ________ night
Calm, clear
The prefix “nimbo-“ suggests a ________ cloud
Rain
A stratiform cloud would be described _________
Sheet like
A cirrocumulous cloud could be described as ________
high, white, flaky or globular
(all of the above)
The _______ is the actual rate of temperature _______ with increasing altitude.
Environmental lapse rate; decrease
The dry adiabatic lapse rate is _______ the moist adiabatic lapse rate.
Greater than
If the air is in a state of unstable equilibrium, it would _______ its original elevation when displaced vertically
accelerate away from
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic lapse rate, the air is in a condition of ________
absolute stability
Solute effect occurs when the water molecule ______ the nucleus of condensation
is absorbed into
The growth process of water droplets occurring in warm air is _________
Collision and coalescence
Larger rain droplets tend to fall from ______ clouds
thicker
The occurrence of sleet results from the presence of a _______ in the air
temperature inversion
The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of
radiative cooling
Frost forms when
objects on the ground cool below dew pt, the dew pt is 0 C or below, water vapor changes into ice without first becoming liquid
(all of the above)
On a cold winter morning the air near the surface is full of smoke particles. If the fog should form in this air, it will probably be ____ fog that forms in cleaner air.
thicker than
On a clear night the minimum temperature drops to 34 F. The following night, fog forms early in the evening. It is a good bet the minimum temperature will not be as low because of the
enhancement of the greenhouse effect by the fog cloud
Along an irregular coastline advection fog is more likely to form at the headlands than at the beaches of the ______ surface winds and ________ air.
converging, rising
If fog is forming at Denver, Colorado and the wind is blowing from the east then the fog is most likely ______ fog
upslope
Frontal fog most commonly forms as _____ raindrops fall into a layer of _____ air
warm, colder
Which cloud is least likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?
cirrocumulus
The _______ is the actual rate of temperature ________ with increasing altitude
environmental lapse, decrease
The most latent heat is liberated in a rising saturated parcel when it is ______ at a altitude
warm, low
Which cloud type would most likely form in absolutely stable air?
stratus
Subsidence inversions are best developed with ______ pressure areas because of the air motions associated with them
high, sinking
Convective instability associated with severe thunderstorms and tornadoes can be brought on by
Lifting a stable air layer whose surface is humid and whose top is dry
Which statement below best describes the curvature effect?
Small droplets evaporate more quickly than large droplets
Which cloud type will only produce precipitation by the collision-coalescence process?
A thick, warm cumulus cloud
The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal with a supercooled liquid is called
Accretion
Which of the following sets of conditions would produce a cumulus cloud with the lowest base?
Air temperature 30 C dew pt 15 C
The ______ is the driving force causing winds in the atmosphere.
Horizontal pressure gradient
The primary correction when comparing barometric measurements is for.
altitude
An isobaric chart is also called a ________ chart.
constant pressure
Warm air aloft is associated with constant pressure surfaces that are found at _____ altitude than normal and _______ than normal atmospheric pressure aloft.
Higher, higher
On an upper-level chart the wind tends to blow _______
Parallel to the contour lines
The balance of forces in geostrophic flow aloft is between ____________ and __________ forces.
Horizontal pressure gradient, ???????
Suppose that the winds aloft in the northern hemisphere are geo strophic and blowing from the south. With the same orientation of isobars at the surface, the winds would blow from the:
Southeast
An example of a synoptic scale atmosphere process would be ___________.
the monsoon circulation over India
Compared to winds aloft, surface winds tend to be______________.
None of the above
When the wind encounters an object in the flow field, eddies or vortices form _______ the object.
On the leeward side
The Santa Ana winds are ______________ winds
fast, hot, dry, downslope
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is usually located near the
Equatorial low
A surface LOW pressure area that moves from the South to North directly west of your home would most likely produce winds that shift from:
SE to S to SW
You are on a ship traveling due W at 10 kts. The apparent wind is NW at about 15 kts. The true wind is:
N at 10 kts
Clouds and precipitation are frequently found on the downwind side of a large lake. This would indicate that the air on the downwind side is:
Converging and rising
A valley breeze would develop its maximum strength:
in mid afternoon
A northeaster along the east coast of the United States is best developed when a low pressure area moves:
Northeastward over the Atlantic ocean adjacent to the coast.
The equatorial zone could be characterized as _______________.
hot and wet with weak winds
The Polar Front Jet Stream is ____________ relative to the Subtropical Jet
all of the above
Another name for the Horse Latitudes is the ______________.
Subtropical High
The strength of the coriolus force at the equator is _____________
zero
A wind that is changing direction in a clockwise sense (N-E-S) is called a _____ wind.
veering
The Beaufort Scale describes the ______________ of the wind
speed
If you are in the Northern Hemisphere and facing into the wind, the low pressure would be ____________.
to your right
The more gently sloped side of a wind-shaped sand deposit is _______________ (relative to wind direction)
to windward (upwind)
The three factors that determine the height of wind waves are _____________, _______________, and __________.
speed, duration, fetch
The length of the radial arms on a wind rose indicate ________________.
percentage of the time that the wind blows from the direction
A fast, cold, downslope wind usually associated with gravity flow from cooling in the interior regions of glaciers is a _____________ wind.
katabatic
The Polar Frontal Jet Stream is important to weather in the mid-latitudes because it separates the ______________ air from the__________air.
polar, tropical
The wind that is often associated with intense fires in Southern California is the
Santa Ana
Characteristic of a Chinook wind is __________.
D. all of the above
Which of the following are cold currents?
I, III, IV Canary, California and Peru currents
If the wind were blowing toward the north along the west coast of South America near Peru, the surface waters would move ____________ and ____________ would occur.
offshore, upwelling
Major ocean currents that flow along and parallel to the coast of North America are
California, Gulf Stream, Labrador
The winds, humidity and cloud cover of the subtropical High Pressure Belt System can be described as __________, ____________ and _______ respectively
weak, dry and clear
The persistent winds in the Northern Hemisphere between the Subtropical High Pressure Belt and the Equatorial Low are called the _________________.
Northeast Tradewinds
The uniformity from season to season of the pressure field and circulation in the Southern Hemisphere when compared to those of the Northern Hemisphere is due to the greater amount of__________ in the southern hemisphere.
E none of the above
Winds at the surface tend to blow across isobars from high pressure toward lower pressure. This is caused by the increased presence or influence of the __________ force at the surface.
frictional
When a wind passed from over land to over a smooth lake, it ______ speed and changes direction to cross the isobar at a __________ angle.
increases; lesser
The similarity between the land breeze – sea breeze circulation system and the winter monsoon – summer monsoon circulation system is that they are ____________.
driven by the differing heating and cooling rates of land and water
Properties that characterize an air mass
temp and moisture content
Cumuliform cloud development would be mostly with
cP air mass moving over cold water
The weather ahead of an approaching front would be
cold air, steady precipitation, and lowering and thickening cloud cover
A frontal inversion would be best observed with a
warm front in winter
An occluded front occurs when a cold front overtakes a
warm front
A building anticyclone means the central air pressure is
increasing
An extra-tropical cyclone is formed from an
unstable wave on the polar front
In an extra tropical cyclone, a warm front is followed by a
cold front
The warm sector of an extra tropical cyclone is between the
warm and cold fronts
If the surface convergence is weaker than the upper level divergence the surface low will
strengthen
The three stages of a thunderstorm (from beginning to end):
cumulus, mature, dissipation
The stage of a thunderstorm in which one experiences the heavy rain, gusty winds, decrease in temperature, and increase in pressure is the
mature stage
A marine air mass thunderstorm most commonly occurs
at sunrise
A hurricane is driven by
low pressure at the surface
A hurricane is smaller, more intense, and more circular then
an extra tropical storm
The more dangerous side of a hurricane in either hemisphere is the
East side
If an air mass were to pass over a warm surface; it would
become less stable and produce more cumuliform clouds
The movement of surface weather patterns is largely predicted from winds at
500 mb
A mT air mass would be characterized as
warm and wet
A secondary front is _____ and is ____ then the primary cold front in an extra tropical cyclone
behind, weaker
With the passage of a front, the wind would
veer
A tornado in the northern hemisphere moving to the northeast would have its highest winds on its
Southeast side
Primary source of energy for a tropical cyclone
latent heat of condensation
The pressure tendency ahead of a front is ______; and ______ following a front
decreasing, increasing
Nitrogen dioxide reacts with water vapor in the atmosphere to form
nitric acid