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22 Cards in this Set

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Threats to internal validity:
SUBJECT EFFECTS
Changes in behavior in response to being a subject or to being in an experiment
Threats to internal validity:
INSTRUMENTATION
differences in results due to unreliability, changes in the measuring instruments or in observers
Threats to internal validity:
TREATMENT REPLICATIONS
Number of replications of the treatment is different from the number of subjects
Threats to internal validity:
SUBJECT ATTRITION
Occurs because of systematic loss of subjects
Threats to internal validity:
MATURATION
Occurs when an effect is due to maturational or other natural changes in the subjects (being older, wiser, stronger, tired)
Threats to internal validity:
DIFFUSION OF TREATMENT
Occurs when subjects in one group learn aout treatments or conditions from different groups
Threats to external validity:
POPULATION EXTERNAL VALIDITY
The extent to which the results can be generalized to other people
Threats to internal validity:
STATISTICAL CONCLUSION
Violation of assumptions or misuse of statistical tests
Threats to external validity:
ECOLOGICAL EXTERNAL VALIDITY
Refers to the conditions of the research and the extent to which generalizing the results is limited to similar conditions
Threats to Internal validity:
PRETESTING
Occurs when the act of taking a test or responding to a questionnaire prior to the treatment affects the subjects
Therats to external validity:
CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
Refers to the adequacy with which we understand and communicate the complexity of the so-called treatment package, particulary the components of it that will allow the observed effect to be replicated as another test of the underlying construct
Threats to internal validity:
STATISTICAL REGRESSION
Scores of groups of subjects taking on values closer to the mean due to respondents being identified on the basis of extremely high or low scores
Nonexperimental research design:
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
1. Current or past status.
2. Describes achievement, attitudes, behavior or other characteristics of a group.
Nonexperimental research design:
COMPARATIVE RESEARCH
1. Examines differences between 2 or more groups on a variable.
2. Makes a comparison based on descriptive data.
Nonexperimental resarch design

CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH:
BIVARAITE (ZERO ORDER)
1. 2 variables are correlated
2. 2 variables from each subject are used and then use pairs of scores to calculate a correlational coefficient
Threats to internal validity:
HISTORY
Unplanned or extraneous events that occur during research and affect the results
Nonexperimental research design:
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH:
PREDICTION STUDIES
1. Provide a more accurate estimation of prediction.
2. Contains a predictor variable and a criterion variable.
Nonexperimantel research design:
SURVEY RESEARCH (#1)
1. Investigator selects a sample of respondents and administers a questionnaire or conducts interviews to collect information on variables.
Nonexperimental research design:
SURVEY RESEARCH (#2)
2. Describe the incidence, frequency, and distribution of the characteristics of an identified population.
Nonexperimental research design:
EX POST FACTO RESEARCH
1. Identifies conditions that have alreadt occured.
2. Causal-comparative design without manipulation od the independent variable.
Threats to internal validity:
EXPERIMENTER EFFECTS
Deliberate or unintended effects of the researcher on subject responses
Threats to internal validity:
SELECTION
differences between the subjects in the groups that may result in outcomes that are different because of group composition