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### 41 Cards in this Set

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 What is the general effect of clouds on the radiation balance? Reflects some visible radiation and absorbs IR. What are clouds made up of? Water droplets and ice crystals Do clouds absorb and radiate in the IR? No, they reflect Do clouds absorb or reflect visible radiation? Both Why are dark clouds often associated with rainfall? They scatter more light Does condensation of water vapor in a parcel of air release heat to the atmosphere? Release Does evaporation of liquid water in a parcel of release heat to the atmosphere? no Is evaporation a warming process or a cooling process for the atmosphere? warming Is condensation a warming process or a cooling process for the atmosphere? cooling State Dalton’s Law of partial pressures total pressure is the sum of partial pressures of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor Define Vapor pressure The partial pressure of the water vapor in a parcel of air Define Saturation vapor pressure The vapor pressure at equilibrium What are the units of vapor pressure and saturation vapor pressure? mb Saturation vapor pressure is a function of only one variable. What is that variable? Temperature Using Dalton’s law, and the fact that air is made up of approximately 79% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% water vapor, calculate the typical water vapor pressure at the surface 10 mb define mixing ratio mass of water vapor/mass of dry air in parcel define saturation mixing ratio the total mixing ratio possible what are the units of mixing ratio and saturation mixing ratio? gm/kg define relative humidity the ratio of the amount of water vapor actually in the air to the maximum temp (and pressure). RH=water vapor content/water vapor capacity what are the units of relative humidity? (e/es) x 100 (%) what is a psychrometer? instrument used to obtain dew point and relative humidity define dew point temperature When air is cooled to the point that it becomes saturated define wet bulb temperature the temperature at which a parcel of air becomes saturated if allowed to cool by evaporating water from an external source. define wet bulb depression dry bulb minus wet bulb (T-Tw) Is humid air heavier of lighter than dry air? lighter If a glass of water were surrounded by saturated air what would happen to the water level? stays the same As the difference between air temperature and dew point increases, does the relative humidity increase or decrease? decreases What is another name for equilibrium vapor pressure? saturation vapor pressure Does average surface mixing ratio decrease or increase going pole ward from the equator? decreases At what latitudes N and S of the equator are there minima in surface RH? 30 degrees N & S At what time of day is the RH generally a maximum? 8 am Name the two most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. carbon dioxiode (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) According to your text, what wavelengths of radiation are absorbed by H20? > 7 According to your text, what wavelengths of radiation are absorbed by CO2? > 1 The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume of air to the mass of the remaining dry air defines what moisture variable? mixing ratio When the air temperature increases, what happens to the saturation vapor pressure? it increases The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to that required for saturation defines what moisture variable? relative humidity The lowest temperature obtained by evaporating water into the air is known as what? wet bulb temperature What is another name for saturation vapor pressure? equilibrium vapor pressure Compare the saturation vapor pressure over ice with that over water. Which is higher? Why? over water b/c the temperature is higher Why are regions inland from the California coast less humid than regions inland from the Gulf coast? Gulf coast water is warmer