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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the "Ontological Theory" on vague objects?
Many physical and linguistical objects/entities are vague.
What does it mean for an object or entity to be "vague"?
To be "vague" is to have imprecise spatial or temporal boundaries.
What is the "Linguistic Theory" on vague objects?
There are no vague objects, only vague linguistic entities. Physical objects have precise spacial and temporal boundaries.
What is the "Epistemic Theory" on vague objects?
There are no vague objects nor vague linguistic entities. Words have precise meanings, and objects have precise spatial and temporal boundaries. Usually, however, we don't KNOW the precise meaning or the precise boundary.
What is the theory of "Restriced Nihilism"?
The theory that folk objects (material composita for which we have common names) don't exist. Only incomposita exists. The idea that there are no tables.
What is the theory of "Mereological Essentialism" ?
The idea that every part of an object, no matter how small, is essential to the object's identity. The idea that tables are extremely fleeting.
What is the theory of "Conjunctivism" ?
The theory that for every set of material objects, even if the objects are scattered and unrelated, the conjuctive object persists. Socrates was once a man, now he is only a scattered conjuctive object. Tables are extremely enduring/durable.
What is the CWM theory on enduring objects?
Objects are neither extremely fleeting, nor extremely durable.
What is the A-Theory on time?
There is such a thing as the movement (passage, flow) of time.
What is the B-Theory on time?
There is no such thing as the movement (passage, flow) of time.
What is Endurantism?
Endurantism is the idea that objects are three-dimensional, they do have spatial parts, but do not have temporal parts. An object "marches" through time. It is present in its entirety at each time at which it exists.
What is Pedurantism?
Material objects are extended in time in the same way they're extended in space (like "timeworms"). Objects are a species of event. We experience their temporal parts.
What is the biggest different between A-theorists and B-theorists (Generally, Endurantists, and Perdurantists) ?
Each acknowledges temporal relationships such as "later than", "earlier than" and "simultaneous with". The B-Theorists do not believe (such as the A-Theoriests do) that an event has the property "futurity", loses that property later and acquires the property "presentness", loses that property and then acquires "pastness".
Describe Zeno's Paradox "The Dichotomy".
The Dichotomy is the paradox meant to illustrate that we cannot complete an infinite sequence of traversals. Defense : We cannot utter the integers from infinity backwards. Therefore motion is impossible.
What was the ultimate purpose of Zeno's Paradox?
To prove that our powers of reason are more reliable than our powers of observation. Zenos offered his paradoxes to support the Monist philosopher Parmenides/
What is a compositional change?
A change in the objects composition while it retains it's identity. Such as changing the bricks of a house, it is still the same house. Compositional change is also known as Mereological change.
What is qualitative change?
A change in a quality of an object, without changing it's composition. Such as re-arranging the pieces of an item so that they change shape.
What is substantial change?
Change that occurs when an objects begins or ceases to exist. Not a change in or to an object, but a change OF object.
What is Sortal Essentialism?
Posed by Aristotle, the every object is an object is an object of that same basic sort, and its being an object of that sort is essential to its identity. An object cannot survive a change in the basic sort of thing it is. For example a bronze statue cannot survive being hammered into a mere piece of bronze.
What is the Indiscernability of Identicals?
If x is numerically identical with y, then everything true of x is true of y.
What is the Diversity of Discernibles?
If there is anything true of x that is not true of y, then x is not (is "diverse" from) y.
What is the Identity of Indiscernibles?
If everything true of x is true of y, then x is y.