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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the three types of lipids?
TG (95%), phospholipids, sterols (plant sterols, cholesterol)
How many carbons make up SCFA?
4-8 C
How many carbons make up MCFA?
10-14 C
How many carbons make up LCFA?
16-20 C
How many carbons are usually found in dairy products?
6-10 C
How many carbons are present in most dietary FA?
16-18 C
Cis TG
H on the same side of double bond; U-like formation; most naturally occurring fatty acids
Trans TG
H on the oppose sides of double bond; more linear; partially hydrogenated;
PUFA+hi pressure+H2 -->saturation
behave more like saturated FAs
lower fluidity
What is the formula for a monounsaturated fatty acid?
C(n)H(2n-2)O2
polyunsaturated fatty acids
will be oxidized with oxygen at their double bond sites; require anti-oxidants to maintain their structures
myristic acid
14:0
palmitic acid
16:0
stearic acid
18:0
palmitoleic acid
16:1 w-7
oleic acid
18:1 w-9
linoleic acid
18:2 w-6
arachidonic acid
20:4 w-6
linolenic acid
18:3 w-3
eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)
20:5 w-3
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
22:6 w-3
Plant oils are a good source of alpha lenolenic acid or linoleic acid?
linoleic
What plant oils contain a significant amount of alpha-linolenic acid?
canola oil and soybean oil
What is the best source of w-3 fatty acids?
cold water fish
What is caused by a deficiency of linoleic acid?
reduced growth rate in children, dermatitis, reduced immune function, poor wound healing, and anemia....(mainly occurs in patients receiving TPN without lipids)
What is caused by a deficiency of linoleic acid?
(much rarer) ...neurological damage, including blurred vision
EFAs are precursors to what?
prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes
Cholesterol is a precursor of?
bile acids, steroid hormones, adrenal hormones (cortisol), vitamin D
What is lecithin?
phospholipid
lingual lipase
important largely for neonates in lipid digestion; acts on milkfats (preemulsified fats)
How does the stomach contribute to lipid digestion?
not much; churning creates a course lipid emulsion; fat slows the release of food from the stomach (satiation)
What is the small intestine's role in lipid digestion?
performs 90% of all lipid digestion; primarily performes hydrolysis and deesterification; also mixes bile salts to convert coarse emulsion into micelles
Pancreatic lipase is inhibited by __________________, and enhanced by ______ and ________.
bile salts; Calcium; Colipase
Phospholipase A2
lecithinase; acts at C1, 2 position of PL
cholesterol esterase
removes FA at low pH - lumen;
adds FA at higher pH - mucosa
What is the circulatory route for short chain fatty acids?
portal vein to the liver fro processing
What is the circulatory route for long chain fatty acids/
TG assembly --> chylomicron formation --> lymph --> heart --> general circulation (peripheral tissues) --> liver
What are the mediators for lipid digestion in the adipose and muscle?
apolipoprotein CII + lipoprotein lipase
What are teh mediators for lipid digestion in the liver?
apolipoprotein E + apolipoprotein E receptor
Hormone sensitive lipase
releases FFA from adipocte into serum
Stimulation: epinephrine, glucagon
Inhibition: insulin, prostaglandins
Lipoprotein lipase
release FFA from CM at adipocyte and muscle surface;
for uptake and use as energy (muscle) or storage (adipocyte)
Activation: lipoprotein CII, insulin
Phosphatidate phosphatase
in all cells, synthesizes TAG from glycerol-P;
activation: steroid hormone
What is the only cofactor that can add CO2?
biotin
How is acetyl CoA carbosylase regulated?
increased by citrate (substrate);
decreased by palmitoyl-CoA (end product)
Resins, colestipol, cholestyramine
block resorption of bile acids; upregulate LDL Rc, HMG CoA reductase; lower plasma LDL levels
Mevinolin (levostatin)
inhibits HMG CoA reductase activity