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25 Cards in this Set

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When the body utilizes ATP as an energy source, the molecule releases its energy and breaks down into:
A) adenine and phosphorus
B) adenosine diphosphate and a phosphate ion
C) phosphorus and adenosine monophosphate
D) phosphorus and adenine molecules
B) adenosine diphosphate and a phosphate ion
The function of coenzymes during cellular metabolism is to:
A) accept electrons and pass them to other molecules
B) serve as energy sources
C) participate in reactions of chemiosmosis
D) replace cytochromes
A) accept electrons and pass them to other molecules
All the following are associated with the process of glycolysis except:
A) glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid
B) ATP must be supplied to the process
C) there is a net gain of two ATP molecules
D) citric acid is an important component of the process
D) citric acid is an important component of the process
Glycolysis is considered an anaerobic process because:
A) oxygen is not involved in the process
B) no energy is released during the process
C) pyruvic acid is not produced during the process
D) enzymes are not used during the process
A) oxygen is not involved in the process
Before entering the Krebs cycle, the compound pyruvic acid is converted into:
A) citric acid
B) oxaloacetic acid
C) acetyl-CoA
D) NAD
C) acetyl-CoA
The chemical reactions of the Krebs cycle occur within the cell:
A) lysosomes
B) Golgi bodies
C) endoplasmic reticulum
D) mitochondria
D) mitochondria
All the reactions of the Krebs cycle are:
A) catalyzed by enzymes
B) found in the cytoplasm
C) dependent on an input of ATP
D) accomplished within the lysosome
A) catalyzed by enzymes
During the Krebs cycle the carbon atoms originally in glucose molecules are released as:
A) glycogen molecules
B) carbon dioxide molecules
C) FAD molecules
D) electrons
B) carbon dioxide molecules
In the reactions of the Krebs cycle, electrons are accepted for transfer by molecules of:
A) protons and neutrons
B) NAD and FAD
C) ATP and ADP
D) MNF and MNG
B) NAD and FAD
Oxygen atoms serve in the process of cellular respiration as:
A) producers of carbon dioxide
B) coenzymes and cofactors
C) sources of NAD molecules
D) final electron acceptors
D) final electron acceptors
From one molecule of glucose, the reactions of the Krebs cycle yield enough energy to synthesize:
A) 34 molecules of ATP
B) 10 molecules of water
C) 29 molecules of NAD
D) 15 molecules of glucose
A) 34 molecules of ATP
In the process of gluconeogenesis:
A) glucose molecules are formed from amino acids
B) glycogen molecules are formed from glucose
C) glycogen molecules are broken down to release glucose
D) glycogen molecules are broken down and fats are synthesized
A) glucose molecules are formed from amino acids
The hormone insulin is essential for the proper metabolism of:
A) amino acids in the cell
B) fat molecules in the liver
C) glucose molecules in tissue cells
D) sodium and potassium ions in nerve cells
C) glucose molecules in tissue cells
A high concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is associated with a:
A) high incidence of heart disease
B) high rate of nerve impulse transfer
C) low incidence of heart disease
D) low rate of nerve impulse
C) low incidence of heart disease
Fatty acids enter the Krebs cycle as molecules of:
A) glutamic acid
B) acetyl-CoA
C) acetoacetic acid
D) urea
B) acetyl-CoA
A high level of ketone bodies in the bloodstream reflects a high rate of:
A) glycogenolysis
B) fat breakdown
C) amino acid utilization
D) mineral absorption
B) fat breakdown
The hormones epinephrine, human growth hormone, glycogen, and insulin all have an effect on:
A) fat metabolism
B) the transport of vitamin A
C) the production of water in the Krebs cycle
D) the absorption of sodium in the kidney
A) fat metabolism
To be utilized for energy metabolism, an amino acid must be changed by:
A) adding an additional acid group
B) adding an additional calcium atom
C) removing an amino group
D) removing its coenzyme portion
C) removing an amino group
Nonessential amino acids are those that:
A) are absorbed from the intestine
B) are synthesized from glucose molecules
C) are conversion products of fat metabolism
D) can be synthesized in the body
D) can be synthesized in the body
All the following take place during the absorptive state except:
A) the body uses amino acids for protein synthesis
B) most of the fat is stored as adipose tissue
C) carbohydrates are used as the main energy source
D) glycogen is used for the body's energy needs
D) glycogen is used for the body's energy needs
The minerals calcium and phosphorus are both used:
A) to assist nerve impulse transmission
B) for tooth and bone formation
C) to maintain the water balance of the body
D) as a component of hemoglobin
B) for tooth and bone formation
It is important that iodine be contained in the diet for use by the:
A) pancreas
B) blood cells that contain hemoglobin
C) cells that synthesize certain amino acids
D) thyroid gland
D) thyroid gland
All the following apply to vitamins except:
A) many vitamins act as coenzymes
B) the fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A and D
C) a deficiency of niacin leads to beriberi
D) folic acid participates in the synthesis of nucleic acids
C) a deficiency of niacin leads to beriberi
The minimal amount of energy required for the work of respiration, circulation, digestion, and other bodily activities when the individual is awake is represented by the:
A) basal metabolic rate
B) postabsorptive state
C) specific dynamic action
D) lower limit metabolism
A) basal metabolic rate
The processes of radiation, evaporation, and convection help to control:
A) the Krebs cycle
B) the mineral requirements of the body
C) the body temperature
D) the metabolism of vitamins in the body
C) the body temperature