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45 Cards in this Set

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The sum of all chemical reactions that occur w/in a living organism.
metabolism
Synthesis of chemical compounds (combine simpler substances into more complex molecules) Requires energy (endergonic)
anabolism
Break down of complex compounds into simpler ones. Releases energy (Exergonic)
catabolism
Gives the enzyme its specificity
active site
nonprotein component
cofactor
organic cofactor
coeenzyme
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quatermary structures
conformation is the result of
weak interactions
hydrogen bonding
ionic bonds
hydrophobic interactions (nonpolor R groups)
endoenzymes/intracellular enzymes
functions inside the cell
1st. law of thermodynamics
(energy is conserved) energy cannot be crated or destroyed, but can be transformed : change from one form to another
oxidation and reduction
(redox reactions)
electrons are transferred from one atom to another
biological oxidations are often
dehydrogenations
substrate-level phosphorylation is the transfer of
high-energy po4- to ADP
anaerobic respiration
final H acceptor is inorganic molecule other than oxygen.
Glucose
C H O
6 12 6
GLUCOSE MUST BE BROKEN DOWN GRADUALLY TO
capture the energy
high enery electrons are removed from glucose
electron acceptors pass these electrons down an energy gradient the energy is used to synthesis ATP
carbohydrate catabolism

the breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy
-glycolysis
-kerbs cycle
-electron transport chain
lock and key fit
enzymes only react w/ a specific substrate
enzyme structure specificity is due to
surface configuration/conformation (shape) of the protein
some enzymes are protein only, others have a protein and a nonprotein portion
a specialized protein that speeds up a reaction w/out being altered by the reaction
a measure of the degree of disorder or randomness of a system
entropy
atoms that gain electrons are
reduced
energy released can be used to produce ATP by
chemiosmosis
ATP produced from complete oxidation of 1 glucose using aerobic respiration
the electron transport chain: a series of carrier molecules that are in turn oxidized and reduced as electrons are passed down the chain
metabolic reactions require
enzymes
enzymes are
catalyst
(low amount of energy needed)
mechanism of enzyme action:
enzymes lower
activation
enzyme structure:
binds with the
substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex
protein portion
apoenzyme
apoenzyme + cofactor=
holoenzyme
factors influencing enzyme activity
temp. & pH
substrate conentration
competitive inhibition
noncompetitive inhibition
feedback inhibition
enzymes can be denatured by
temp. &pH
(alters structure and attraction)
acts as a substrate than plateus
substrate conectration
blocks enzymes by binding to active site
competitive inibition
not @active site but somewhere else
noncometitive inhibition
exoenzyme/extracellular enzyme function
outside the cell
energy
the capacity to do work
2 states of energy
kinetic
potential
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
potential energy
energy which is stored (inactive)
in any change from one form to another entropy
increases
to maintain life a complex ordered system cells need
a constant source of energy
atoms that loses electrons are
oxidized
organisms concentrate (stored) energy in the high energy bonds of
ATP