Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Based on an element's ability to either share or transfer electron.

For ionic: total # taken or given away completely Equas charge on ion.

For covalent: arbitrarily designated
Oxidation Numbers
What is the oxidation number for:
Hydrogen, in the combined state?
Oxygen, in the combined state?
Hydrogen, in the free state?
Oxygen in the free state?
Hydrogen, in the combined state = +1
Oxygen, in the combined state = -2
Hydrogen, in the free state = 0
Oxygen, in the free state = 0
What is the oxi.# for Zn:

What is the oxi.# for Mn?

What is true about oxidation-reduction?
Can't have oxidation without reduction
Defined as:
Gain of oxygen, Loss of hydrogen, loss of electrons, loss of energy
Defined as:
Loss of oxygen, gain of hydrogen, gain of electrons, gain of energy
Occurs simultaneously as one agent is oxidized (loses H2+e-), another agent is reduced (gains H2+e-).
In the body, these reactions are exogonic.
Agent which brings about oxidation of something else, so the agent itself is reduced.
Oxidizing Agent
Agent which brings about reduction of something else, so agent itself is oxidized.
Reducing Agent
Redox reactions are caltalyzed by ___?
Reactions where hydrogen atoms are removed use ___.
The enzyme Dehydrogenase.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of oxygen are called ___.
Enzymes have two parts:
1) name the two parts
2) identify their characteristics
1) Apoenzymes: the protein portion; has active site, specific for it's substrate; not changed during rx.
2) Coenzyme: non-protein helper; usually not synthesized by bod; many are vitamins needed for proper metabolism; act as oxidizing and reducing agents.
What are two examples of coenzymes used in cellular respiration?
What are their characteristics?
1) NAD/NADH2: Oxidized form is NAD; reduced form is NADH2;can be used over and over by cells
2) FAD/FADH2: oxidized for is FAD; reduced form is FADH2; can be used over and over by cells
"Bank" for storing energy; energy is stored within high-energy bonds that attach to 2 of the 3 phosphate groups of this molecule.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
True or False:
ATP is not phosphorolyzed directly
Holds lots of energy; will be converted into ATP in the Electron Transport Chain (System).
What is the overall equation for cell respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy released (36 ATP)
All chemical reactions necessary to maintain life. Sum total of all breakdown and building processes.
Food fuels are broken down within cells and some energy is captured to produce ATP.
Cellular Respiration
Synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones; synthesis of ATP.
Anabolic reactions
Hydrolysis of complex structures into simpler ones; breakdown of glucose.
Catabolic reactions
ATP is never hydrolized directly; what happens instead?
Enzymes shift the high-energy phosphate groups of ATP to other molecules. The phosphorylated molecules are then activated to perform cellular functions.
Primes the molecule to change in a way that increases it's activity or produces motion/does work.
Energy-containing nutrients are processed in three major stages:
-Digestion (breakdown of food; nutrients transported to tissues)
-Anabolism (nutrients built into lipids, proteins, and glucogen for storage products) or nutrients are broken down by catabolic pathways to pyruvic acid and acetyl CoA
-Oxidative Breakdown (nutrients are catabolized to carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
-Glycolysis (occurs within the cytoplasm)
-Kreb's Cycle (occurs in mitochondria)
-Electron Transport System (occurs in mitochondria
Stage of cellular respiration that does not require oxygen. (anaerobic)
High-energy phosphate groups are transferred directly from phosphorylated substrates to ADP. ATP is synthesized via substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle.
Substrate level of phosphorylation
H+ is pumped out/pumped in through ATP synthase (used to make ATP)
Chemiosmotic process
The stage of cellular respiration that produces the most ATP.
Electron transport system
A three-phase pathway in which glucose is oxidized into pyruvic acid; NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H; ATP is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation.
Moves on to the Kreb's cycle in an aerobic pathway; is reduced to lactic acid in an anaerobic environment.
Pyruvic acid
What are the three phases of Glycolysis?
Phase 1: Sugar activation
Phase 2: Sugar Cleavage
Phase 3: Oxidation and ATP formation
Two ATP molecules activate glucose into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (isomerization and substrate level phosphorylation)
Phase 1 of glycolysis, sugar activation.
The final products per each glucose molecules in Glyfolysis are:
*2 pyruvic acid molecules
*2 NADH+H molecules (reduced to NAD+)
*A net gain of 2 ATP molecules (made 4, used 2)
Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and is fueled by pyruvic acid and fatty acids; produces NADH2, which are later used in the electron transport chain to generate a lot of ATP.
Kreb's Cycle: Preparatory Step.
What happens in the Kreb's Cycle: Preparatory Step - Transition?
Pyruvic acid is converted to Acetyl CoA in three main steps: decarboxylation, oxidation, and formation of Acetyl CoA (acetic acid combined with sulfur-containing coenzyme A)
For each molecule of glucose entering glycolysis, two molecules of Acetyl CoA enter the Krebs Cycle. What are the final products from Kreb's Cycle?
2 NAD reduced to NADH2 (transition)
6 NAD reduced to NADH2 in Krebs
2 FAD reduced to FADH2 in Krebs
2 direct ATP made in Krebs