Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/24

Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What will a deficiency in the liver production of albumin result in with respect to dehydration or edema?
it will result in edema
Why do diabetics become dehydrated?
glucuse cause net flow into the vessels.
What three things might cause edema? And why?
(a) Liver, reduced albumin production and consequently less colloidal pressure. (b) kidney failure where albumin is leaking out (why albumin, because it's small and will be the first to leak out.) (c) insufficient protein consumption (Kwashiorkor)
What is microalbuminuria?
small amount of protein in the urine.
What is the role of cytochrome P450s?
they are involved in phase I rxns where they hydroxylate xenobiotics to make them more soluble for excretion.
What is the role of cytochrome P450 reducatases?
they reduce cyt 450, and as such they recycle them
How does alcohol consumption with tylenol become a toxic combination?
CYP2E1 (in the P450 family), which convert acetaminophin to NAPQI (which is toxic). Ordinarily, this is not a problem because there are other rxns that are competing for tylenol. But when alchol is present it activates CYP2EI, thus more NAPQI is made.
How does one treat alcohol/tylenol poisoning?
Administer N-acetylcystein, which activates GSH (glutathione transferase, which converts NAPQI into mecaptopuric acid, which is not toxic.
When one looks at plasma enzymes as markers for tissue damage and sees a lack of heme synthesis, bilirubin formation, bile synthesis, and albumin deficits, high glucose, which organ is likely?
Liver
Where are clotting factors, albumin, and urea produced?
The liver
What do elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and gamma-GT suggest?
liver damage
What does the presence of lactate dehydrogenase in the plasma suggest? What is the half life of this enzyme?
RBC lysis, perhaps due to pernicious anemia… 6.8 days
What does the presence of creatine kinase in the plasma suggest? What is the half life of this enzyme?
cardiac tissue damage… 1.4 days
What is the half life of albumin?
17 days
For heart attack, which would be the appropriate enzyme to measure at a given time (days) following the even? (a) @ t<1.5, (b) @ 1.5> t <-4, (c) t > 4
CK, Lactate dehydrognease, aspartate aminotransferase
What does an increase in bilirubin level suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
heme catabolism
What does a decrease in glucose level suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
carbohydrate metabolism
What does an decrease in albumin (or prothrombin time) level suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
protein synthesis
What does an increase in ammonia level suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
protein catabolism
What does an decrease in urea level suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
protein catabolism
What does an increase in cholestrol and triglyceride level suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
lipid metabolism
What does an increase in drug half-life suggest as a marker for liver function impairment?
drug metabolism -> cytochrome P450
(a) What are AST and ALT marker enzymes associated with? (b) What two other indicators of the condition in question "a" may also be present?
(a) cirrhosis, or an advanced fibrotic state.... (intrahepatic jaundice) (b) increased levels of direct bilirubin and dark urine caused by conjugated bilirubin.
None
(a) What are gamma-GT and ALP marker enzymes associated with? (b) What two other indicators of the condition in question "a" may also be present?
(a) Post-hepatic (biliary tree obstruction), (b) increased levels of direct bilirubin and dark urine caused by conjugated bilirubin… ALSO, lighter color feces.