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18 Cards in this Set

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Delirium
distrubance in consciousness
change in cognition and or development of perceptual abnormalitie
may cease within a few hours or persist for weeks
Delirium - etiology
High risk groups - Elderly, peole with decreased cerebral reserve due to dementia or stroke, postcardiotomy patients, burn patients, peole with drug dependence - during withdrawel.
Delirium - Treatment
2 targets
treatment of the underlying cause of the disorder and reduction of agitated behaviors. second, target is addressed by a combination of environmental manipulation and psychosocial intervention. Haloperidol or other anti-psychotic drugs may help reduce agitation
Dementia
characterized by multiple cognitve defices that include 1 degree of memory impairment 2 aphasia, aprxia, agnosia, and impaired executive funcioning. prgressive and irreversible.
Dementia - antrograde or retrograde amnesia?
Both, but antrograde more evident in the beginning.
Aphasia
difficulty with lagnuage functioning
Apraxia
trouble executing motor actions
Agnosia
inability to recognize and identify familiar objects and people.
Dementia - Differential Diagnosis - Pseudodementia
major depressive disorder resembling dementia in older people - person is overly concerned about symptoms and the symptoms are abrupt rather then progressive.
Denentia of Alzheimers Type
3 - stages
single most common casue of dementia - 65% of all cases. Gradual onset of symptoms and progressive delcine in cog. functioning.
1 anterograde amnesia
2 increasing retrograde amnesia, fluent aphasia
3 deteriorated intellectual functioning - urinary and fecal incontinence.
Diagnosing Alzehimers
usuallly diagnosed only when all other causes have been ruled out for dementia. definiteive diagnosise requires brain biopsy extensive neuron loss. 8-10 years duration from onset to death. more common in females than males.
Etiology of alzheimers
genetic component - abnormal chromosone 21 and 19. Aluminum deposits in brain tissue, a malfuncioning immune system, and a low level of acetylcholine (ACh). use of drogs like Cognex and Aricept help prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine Ach
Teatment of Alzhemiers
cobination of group therapy, antidepressant drugs, behavioral tech and antipsychotic drugs, include family, outcome best when remain home with families.
Vascular Dementia
cognitive impairments and focal neurological signs or laboratory evidence of cerebrovasular disease. "patchy" pattern of symptoms - determined by location of brain dmage. Recovery depends on cause - such as stroke. risk factors, smoking cigarette, hypertension, diabetes
Dementia Due to HIV
forgetfulness, impaired attentio, and slowed mental processes. - more severe depression and anxiety, no aphasia
Denentia Due to Parkinsons Disease
salient sympoms include bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, and a resting tremor. masklike facial expressions. 50% prominent symptoms of depression. 60% of parkinsons develop dementia. associated with loss of dopamine-producing cells and presence of Lewy bodies. more likely the result of environmental factors than genetics.
Dementia Due to Huntington's Disease
fatal inherited disease that casued dgegeration of GABA-secreting cells in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia, and cortex. Cognitive deterioration begins with forgetfulness and eventuall progresses to dementia. fidgeting and clumsiness. loss of impulse control. High sucide risk becasue aware of disease
Dissociative Amnesia
TRauma...only cant remember the experience of trauma.