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24 Cards in this Set

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alleles
Alternate versions of a gene
amniocentesis
A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus
carrier
In human genetics, an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus, with one normal allele and one potentially harmful recessive allele. The heterozygote is phenotypically normal for the character determined by the gene but can pass on the harmful allele to offspring
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
A technique for diagnosing genetic and congenital defects in a fetus by removing and analyzing a small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta
codominance
A phenotypic situation in which the two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
complete dominance
A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
dihybrid
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest
dominant allele
In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype
epistasis
A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism
heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given genetic character
homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given trait
hybridization
The mating, or crossing, of two varieties
incomplete dominance
A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties
law of independent assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characteristics are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes
law of segregation
Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization
monohybrid
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest
pedigree
A family tree describing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring across as many generations as possible
phenotype
The physical and physiological traits of an organism
pleiotropy
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
polygenic inheritance
An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character
Punnett square
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization
recessive allele
In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype
sickle-cell disease
A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein