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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
2 types of encoding
automatic and effortful
3 types of effortful encoding
1 - Meaning
2 - Contextual meaning
3 - Connections to previously stored info
organize info into meaningful/useful units
dividing concepts into categories (flowchart)
used nonsensical syllables; forgetting curve is initially rapid, then levels off w/ time
spacing effect
don't cram...spread out your studying
serial position effect
recalling first and last items on a long list
sensory memory
shortest memory; immediate, initial recording of sensory info
2 types of sensory memory
iconic - visual stimuli, exact representation of scene
echoic - auditory stimuli
short term memory
limited duration, "magic number" of 7 +/- 2
long term memory
VIRTUALLY LIMITLESS memory; do not have to discard old info to remember new
Karl Lashley
memory is not stored in one place (lesioning brain of rats)
long term potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapses' firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation (like a warm-up)
how to increase LTP
make more connections, and stronger connections (using peg words, images)
retrograde amnesia
can't remember anything before incident (retro think old)
anterograde amnesia
can't form new memories following incident
explicit memory
things you can explain, episodic = experiences, semantic = facts
implicit memory
retention w/o conscious recollection (it's like riding a bike!)
ability to retrieve info NOT in conscious awareness (fill in the blank)
ability to identify items (multiple choice, word bank)
activation of previous associations in memory (hints, clues)
mood congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences consistent with one's current mood
state dependent memory
what is learned in one state (high, drunk) is more readily remembered in the same state
proactive interference
prior learning disrupts recall of NEW info
retroactive interference
new learning disrupts recall of OLD info
motivated forgetting
unknowingly revising history
defense mechanism to banish anxiety-arousing thoughts/feelings
positive transfer
when old info facilitates learning of new info (latin helps us learn spanish)
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing an event to the wrong source (oh I read it somwhere...)
false memory syndrome
a person's identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience
fundamental attribution error
tendency of observers to underestimate influence of situation, overestimate person's disposition
self-serving bias
success is due to internal factors (it's our triumph) failure is due to external (it's THEIR fault)
cognitive dissonance
psychological discomfort created by inconsistency btw a person's attitudes and actions (hypocrite)
"foot in the door" phenomenon
(freedman & fraser)
people who have already agreed to a small request are more likely to agree to a larger one
social facilitation
stronger performance when in the presence of others
social loafing
slacking off when in a group
abandon normal restraint when in presence of others (think KKK)
Asch's conformity experiment
lines of different length, conclusion = a person will doubt his/her judgment if it doesn't match everyone else's
reciprocity principle
people are obligated to return favors
door in the face technique
make very large request, followed by concession (think infomercials BUT THAT'S NOT ALL)
group think
mode of thinking when desire for harmony in group overrides discussion of realistic alternatives
group polarization
enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes thru discussion w/i group (talk about what u agree about)
just-world phenomenon
in-group bias
tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory
prejudice provides an outlet for anger because it gives us someone to blame (jews in WWII)
roots of prejudice (3)
1) schemas
2) categorization
3) availability heuristics
availability heuristic
tendency to make a prediction based on how easily one can think of an example
bystander effect
tendency for any bystander to be less likely to give aid if others are present
frustration-aggression principle
blocking of a goal leads to anger leads to violence
mere exposure effect
repeated exposure to stimuli (such as people) increases liking of that stimuli
equity theory
people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give
passionate love
an aroused state of pleasure at the beginning of a relationship
companionate love
deep affectionate attachment, usually after long-term relationship