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25 Cards in this Set

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Cherry's Study
Cocktail Party Phenomenon
-Dichotic Listening Procedure - one messages presented to right ear, another to the left ear
-If shadow message in right ear, cant remember anything that was presented to left ear
-Did notice if voice changed from male to female
Gray & Wedderburn
(against broadbents filter)
-Showed subjects could be distracted by info presented in unattended ear
-Shadow message in one ear(meaningless words & #'s)
-Info on unattended ear was being processed rather than ignored-->Filtering of info by ear is not complete
Capacity Theories of Attention
Assume that the degree to which stimuli can automatically be processed to the semantic level depends on processing load (determined by # of stimuli that attention must be directed to)
-Processing Load Low-> Unattended info can be semantically processed
-Processing Load High->
Unattended info cannot be semantically processed
-Flanker Compatability Tasks
Lavie et al
Flanker Compatability Task
-Display containes name of musical instrument or of fruit
-Ignore picture on side, just respond to the word
-Picture affected performance:
-When picture & word were from the same category->Responses were faster
-When there were many distractor words so cognitive load was high, the flanker(picture), did not affect response times
*-When processing load was high:Distractor words were not processed semantically
Long Term Store
-Types of Info Stored
-False Recognition Test
visual, acoustic, tactile, olfactory, semantic
False Recognition Test:
-Presented list of words to study
-Recognition Test: Some words were synonyms (not on study list)
-->If person falsely recognizes synonyms of studied words at a higher rate than words unrelated to study words, the person must have stored the semantic properties of the studied words
Clustering
-Tendency for items sharing certain properties to be free-recalled in groups together
-A words semantic properties can form the basis of clustering
-If free-recall shows evidence of semantic clustering, person has stored semantic properties of those words
Collins & Quillian's Model
Meaning is represented by the relations that connect concepts
-2 kinds of relations represented in order to represent semantic info in the LTS
1. Property Relations - properties of concepts
2. Subset-Superset (isa) - Class to which a concept belongs (eg) Canary "isa" bird
-Concepts are represented hierarchically - from least to most specific
-Concepts further apart are processed slower than if they're close together
Collins & Quillians Model (2)
-As the number of links seperating concepts in the hierarchy increases, reaction time increases
Problem: Typicality Effect - people are faster to verify that typical rather than atypical instances are members of a category
(eg) A robin is a bird (fast RT)
A chicken is a bird (slow RT)
-Collins model says both these should take the same amount of time
Analog View
Visual info is stored in a way that resembles the stimulus (eg)Photograph
Kosslyn Map Study: If mental representation is like a visual scene, then switching attention between 2 poiunts in a visual image will take longer if the points are further apart, & shorter if the points are close together
-Kosslyn Size of Mental Image:
-211msec longet to verify property of a small vs large mental image
-Properties that belong to a large mental image will be easier to verify so RT decreases
Propositional View
Anderson proposes a propositional account for Kosslyn's image size study
-Subjects who form small image may activate fewer propositions to depict an object
-When properties were left out, it would take them longer to make decisions about properties of small vs. large objects
Farah et al - Concrete vs. Abstract Words
-ERP's revealed more activity in areas of brain associated with the visual system when they were reading concrete words
-Primary Visual Cortex & Temporal Lobe: Associated with object perception
-because some brain areas that process visual info are activated by visual imagery-->Evidence for Analog Representation
-fMRI's Revealed: Some areas in primary visual cortex were activated during visual inspection and imagination
Long-Term Store: Capacity
appears to be unlimited
Theoretical Upper Limit:
1. LTS involves making changes in the connections among neurons in the brain
2. Connections cant be reused
3. There's some upper limit to the number of neurons in brain
-Aging process may prevent these from being relevant
LTS: Duration
Evidence
Info that appears to be unavailable in the LTS may actually be there, but cannot be retrieved
TULVING: 24 words from various categories
-Gave Cues: subjects could recall more words with cues
-Forgetting is due to interference from subsequently learned info->Retroactive Interference
Duration may be forever
BURTT: gave 21, 20 line passages to be read 90 times over 3 months
-Tested son at age 8, 14, 18
-Fell to 0 words recalled by age 18-Doesn't mean info is not in memory, it may just be that it can't be retrieved
LTS: Duration
Penfield Permanent Storage View
-Epilepsy patients
-To find damaged areas of brain, he stimulated the exposed cortex while patients were awake
-Used gentle electric current to find damaged areas and to see if they were controlling vital functions
-Patients reported the sensations caused by the electric stimulation
Objection: reports only elicited when electric current was applied to damaged area - damage area may not be representative of entire brain
-Penfield: Yrs of abnormal electrical discharges have sensitized the regions making them more responsive, not changing them
Objection: Reports are not acurate memories, only hallucinations accompanied by feelings of familiarity
LTS: Fate
Decay
Decay - strength of info in LTS decays overtime
-when a memory is retrieved its energized - The energy decays rapidly at firts then slow ovettime
Mathematical Models Simulate Decline in Memory Overtime
LTS: Fate
Consolidation
Memories become more secure(less fragile) overtime
-Memory is less able to be disrupted
HEBB: Consolidation may be the "burning in" that a memory trace undergoes from persisting electrical activity
-1 result of consolidation: older memories are less disruptible than newer ones->They've undergone more consolidation
Retrograde Amnesia - Older memories less affected
LTS: Fate
Consolidation - Squire, Slater, Chase: Effects of ECT
-Test of distant memories that used names of equally popular TV shows that aired between 6 & 11pm for 1 season
-Which is the name of a real TV show?
-2 different sets of 40 questions
-1 before shock, 1 after shock
-ECT interfered with memories formed 1 to 3 years previously, not earlier memories
LTS: Fate
Loftus & Burns
-Shows how susceptible new memories are to disruption
-2 groups shown a movie: A bank was robbed & robber was running from bank past 2 boys playing frisbee
2 Versions: 1 violent ending, 1 nonviolent
-Participants asked to recall the # on the boys' jersey
1) Free Recall
- Violent = 4.3%
- Nonviolent = 28%
2) Recognition (pick # out of a set of 4 #'s provided)
- Violent = 27.9%
- Nonviolent = 55%
Brown: Retrograde Amnesia Covers Many Decades
Amnesics memory for recent events is worse than for older events
-Older memories are less affected then newer memories
Shrinking Retrograde Amnesia: Older memories return first
Hippocampus - 2 Complimentary learning Systems
McClelland
Plays role in consolidation
1)Widely distributed activity among neurons in neocortex that initially processes info
2)Hippocampus - Contains compact representation of those associations
-Memory isn't located in the Hippocampus (not the sight) but it is crucial for controlling the overall representation and new formation of memories
Hippocampus Role in Consolidation - Process
1)Activity in various parts of the brain is triggered by processing a stimulus
2)That activity is condensed by various structures & represented in the hippocampus
3)That representation in the hippocampus becomes active, perhaps during sleep or because a person rehearses the info
4)That reactivates & strengthens the neocortical representations & makes them independent of the hippocampus
LTS Retrieval: Parallel vs Serial Scan
Parallel Scan - all items in memory are searched all at the same time (tuning fork analogy)
-Support: if long term memory had to be searched serially, the retrieval process would take too long
Serial Scan - items in memory are searched sequentially - 1 by 1 (computer)
LTS: 3 Retrieval Properties
1)When a word is retrieved, it is activated
2)This activation spreads to associated representations in memory
3)The activated representations require less info from the environment to be aroused to consciousness
Priming - Lexical Decision Task
-Source of evidence that retrieval involves activation
-Presented with strings of letters and asked to decide as quick as possible if string spells an english word
-2nd word is shown - What happens if the 2nd word is semantically related to the 1st word?--> Response to 2nd word is faster if its related to the 1st word
-Interpretation - (3 retrieval properties)
Priming in a Lexical Decision Task
**-Illustrates that retrieval involves activation that spreads to associated memory locations
Stroop Effect
-Source of evidence that retrieval is automatic
1)Name color of 100 color patches
2)Name color of ink of 100 words that spelled conflicting color names
Reaction Time:
-Color Patches = 47sec
-Words = 110.3sec
* - In fluent readers, retrieval of the semantic info of words by their letter is automatic