Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Refers to the representation of info in memory
1) How info is represented in memory
2) What info is represented in memory
1) Capacity - how much can it hold
2) Duration - how long does the info last
3) Fate - what happens to the info in the store
The act of extracting info from a memory store
Sperling's Partial Report Procedure
1) 12 letters were shown for 50 msec
2) High, Medium, Low tone sounded after display disappeared
3) subjects reported as many letters in a row as possible
- Had stored 75% of the 12 letters correctly (9)
- This brief high capacity store of visual info is the Iconic Store
Iconic Store
Capacity - 9 items
Duration - 250msec (visual info lasts)
Fate - Masking or Erasure
Averbach & Coriell
1) letter array for 50msec
2) Blank interval for 50msec
3) Circly displayed for 50msec
- With the circle, subjects correctly identified the circled letter only 10-20% of the time
--> The circle had masked or erased the letter
Modified Partial Report Cue
(no semantic info in iconic store)
1) letters shown for 50msec
2) High or Low tone
Spatial------> 100% correct
1. High tone = Top Row
2. Low Tone = Bottom
Semantic------> 50% correct
1. High T = Report Letters
2. Low To = Report numbers
- Only the spatial cue was effective--> No Semantic Info in Iconic Store
Rayner Study
(Size of area from which person picks up info during a fixation in reading)
Subjects read sentences - Rayner changed sentence during a saccade
- When you're fixating 10-12 character spaces before the nonsense word, it took 50msec more time to process when the real word was substituted (compared to when the real word was there all along)
-Info in the Iconic Store may receive some processing - This helps us anticipate the general form of the info we are about to encounter
Kunst-Wilson, Zajonc Study
-Showed subjects 10 polygons 5 times each for 1msec
1) Recognition Test
2) Affective Jugment Test
-> Recognition Performance - 48% (chance)
-> Affective Jugment - Previously viewed polygon was preferred 60% of the time (above chance)
--> Some info of the stimuli must have been getting into the info processing system
--> This allowed them to better like the previously viewed one even though they could not consciously recognize it
Bargh STudy
-Subjects shown 100 words for 100msec eah followed by a mask (row of Xs)
-Words were shown outside of the foveal region
-0, 20, 80% were hostile words
-They were given a 12 sentence behavior description of a fictional character Donald
-The higher the proportion of hostile words shown, the more negatively they rated Donald
The conscious experience that results from stimulation of the senses
Bottom-Up Processing
Data-Driven Processing
Involves processing based on incoming data from the environment
Top-Down Processing
Involves using knowledge gained from experience to help perceive & identify a stimulus
Donders Experiment
1) Simple Reaction Time - push button as fast as possible when light flashed
2)Choice Reaction Time - push one button if light was on left, another if it was on the right
--> Donders attributed the time difference between the conditions to the time it took to make a decision--154msec--
*Mental Processes usually are not observed directly but inferred from behavior*
Helmholtz Theory
Theory of Unconscious Inference
-Some of our perceptions are produced by unconscious assumptions we make about our environment
-We use experience to infer much of what we know about the world
-1st lab for studying mental processes
-Introspection to examine mental processes
-Trained subjects reported their mental experience
-Some mental processes occur so quickly or automatically that they are not aavailable to conscious description
Rejected Introspection
Proposed Behaviorism
Goal: Predict & Control Behavior
Problems With Behaviorism
-Rewards & punishments not only influence on behavior - Instincts play a role
-How objective situation is interpreted can be important
-unobservable processes like beliefs & memories are important
Newell & Simon
Human System Computer
-Sensory Stores -Input/Output
-STMemory - RAM
-LTMemory - Hard Drive/CD
Current Approach in Cognitive Psychology
Attempt to describe (unobservable) mental processes that are revealed through many techniques:
-errors in task performance
-reaction times
-physiological measures
Anterograde Amnesia
Person generally loses the ability to do new long-term memorization
Retrograde Amnesia
Person will often forget information learned before the accident
Shrinking Retrograde Amnesia
Over time, previously learned info returns - The oldest memories tend to recover first, followed by the more recent ones
Human Memory
1) Person directs attention to some location in the iconic store where unidentified visual info is stored
Tuning Fork
1) Person strikes unlabeled tuning fork
Human Memory
2) Visual info in Long-Term store is contacted that matches info in iconic store, activating both visual & semantic info in the LTS
Tuning Fork
2) A tuning fork that is set to vibrate at the same frequency as the unlabeled fork begins to hum
Human Memory
3) Person becomes conscious of existence of & identity of info in the iconic store
Tuning Fork
3) Person identifies vibration frequency of the unlabeled tuning fork by reading the label on the vibrating tuning fork
IT Cortex
InferoTemporal - Neurons respond to visual forms
Damage--> Prosopagnosia - can't recognize faces of close friends, family, or themselves
MT Cortex
MedialTemporal -
Damage--> Motion Agnosia - Inability to perceive motion
Neisser's Definition of Cognitive Psychology
All processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, & used
Reduction - occurs when info is lost
Elaboration - occurs when we add to the sensory input