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44 Cards in this Set

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The split second uptake of stimuli that is gone almost immediately if we do not attend to it
Sensory Memory
(such as the color of the car in front of you as you turned into the school parking lot)
The information that we may decide to work with
Short term/Working Memory
(such as someone's phone number that we just got from 411--information)
The permanent library of information stored in our head
Long term memory
Conscious memories--those of which we are aware
Declarative/Explicit Memories
Memories for knowledge
Semantic Memories
Memories for behavior
Episodic Memories
A type of episodic behavior that guides behavior in given situations
(e.g. what to do at a diner)
A framework for organizing information contained in semantic memories
(such as when studying countries, one should examine geography, economics, population, government, etc.)

The processing of information into the memory system by extracting meaning from auditory, visual, or other stimuli
The retention of encoded information over time
The process of getting information out of memory storage
The unconscious encoding of incidental information
Automatic processing
(such as who you passed in the hall during change of classes)
The rote rehearsal of information without making memories, without elaborating on it
Shallow Processing
The thoughtful processing in which memories are laid down
Deep processing
Hearing information several times at varying intervals
Repeated Exposure
Taking concepts and relating them to things with which we are familiar
Organized Processing
(such as relating dogs to fur, 4 legs, and barking and using this to distinguish this from the memory of a cat with fur, 4 legs, and purring). It is similar to using a schema
The linking of a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
(such as linking the fact that we were singing when you learned this concept in class)
The creating of mental images to represent words
(such a juggler)
We increase memory if we use both semantic encoding and imagery
Dual Coding Theory
A way to enrich coding by deciding whether or how information is personally relevant
Self-referent encoding
The conscious repetition of infomration, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Additional rehearsing enhances learning
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Spaced learning/spacing effect
studying every day is better than cramming the night before a test
The encoding of the meaning of verbal input
Semantic Encoding
The encoding of the meaning of verbal input
Semantic Encoding
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Acoustic/Phonemic Encoding
A mental picture
Memory aids, especially ones that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Flashbulb Memory
(like 9/11 or your wedding)
Organizing items into familiar manageable units
(like ROY G BIV)
A multilevel classification system based on common properties
(like a periodic table)
the process of getting information out of memory storage
A measure of memory in which the person need only IDENTIFY items previously learned
(like on a multiple choice test)
A measure of memory in which the person must RETRIEVE information learned earlier
(like a fill in the blank test without a word bank or an essay test)
The (often unconscious) activation of particular associations in memory. these associations serve as cues to trigger memory stands
The eerie sense that "I've experienced this before" that occurs when cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Deja Vu
(similar to how context cues trigger the retrieval of earlier memories)

The tendency to recall experiences that are considtent with one's current good or bad mood
Mood Congruent Memory
The temporary inability to remember something you know accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
What are 5 reasons why we forget?
1) Ineffective coding--we didn't place the info into memory in the 1st place 2) Decay--memory traces fade with time 3) Interference--we forget because of competition from other material 4) Retrieval Failure--There is a mismatch between retrieval cues and encoded info 5) Motivated Forgetting--we want to banish some disturbing memories from our consciousness (very Freudian)
There is a rapid drop-off in the amount of information remembered with a plateauing after this drop-off
Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve
The disruptive effect upon old information by new learning
Retroactive Interference
(this is why teachers cannot remember your name the term after they had you in class)
The disruptive effect upon new learning from prior learning
Proactive Interference
When old information facilitates the learning of new information
Positive Transfer
(your knowledge of Spanish helps you learn French)
People develop false memories after being exposed to subtle misinformation; it is why people develop false memories
Misinformation Effect