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225 Cards in this Set

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The transfer of nutrients into the circulation:
absorption
What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract:
1. Mucous membrane
2. Submucosa
3. Smooth muscle
4. Serous membrane
Accessory organs:
not a direct part of the digestive tract

release substances into the digestive tract through ducts
mucous membrane (mucosa)
epithelieal layer contains many ucus-secreting cells

from mouth to anus contains multiple layers of squamous (flat) cells that hep protect deeper tisues.
Many of the cells that secrete digestive juices are located in the:
mucousa
Musous secreting cells (goblet cells) appear as clear areas between:
epithelial cells.
The small intestine's lining has fingelike extensions (vili) that do what:
aid in the absorption of nutrients
Submucosa:
layer of connective tissue beneath the mucosa

contains blood vesssels and some nerves that help regulate digestive activity
Submucosa has many glands that procuce:
Mucus to protect that organ from highly acidic materials received from the stomach
Smooth muscle:
Most digestive organs have two layer of smooth muscle:
inner (circular fibers)
outter (longitudinal fibers)
Inner Layer of smooth muscle:
When contracted the lumin is narrowed
Outer Layer of smooth muscle (Longitudinal muscle):
when contrated the wall shortens and the lumen becomes wider
Alternating contractions of the inner and outer layer of the smooth muscle in the digestive tract create a:
wavelike movement called peristalsis
Peristalsis:
propels food through the digestive tract and mixes with digestive juices

a wavelike movement created from the inner and outer layer of the smooth muscle
Esophagus has what type of muscle"
striated muscle
The stomach has 3 layers to:
add strength for churing food
What is the outermost layer of the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity:
Serious membrane or serosa

(a thin moist tissue composed of simple quamous epithelium and loose connective tissue - forms part of the peritoneum)
The esophagus above the diaphram has an outer layer composed of:
fibrous connective tissue
The abdominopelvic cavity is lined with:
a thin, shiny serous membrane that folds back to cover most of the organs contained within the cavity.
outer portion that lines the abdominal cavity and attatches organs to the abdominal wall:
parietal peritoneum
Serious membrane or serosa
thin, moist tissue composed of simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue

forms part of the peritoneum
visceral peritoneum:
covers the abdominal organs

the slippery membrane that allows the organs to slide over each other as they function
The peritoneum also carries:
- blood vessels

- limphatic vessels

- nerves

-
Peritioneal cavity:
the space between the two layers (parietal/visceral)

- contains serious fluid (peritoneal fluid)
The greater peritoneal cavity:
the main portion located in the abdominal cavity and extending into the pelvic cavity
The lesser peritoneal cavity:
formed by a smaller extension of these membranes dorsal to the stomach, extending dorsal to the liver to the posterior attachment of the diaphram
Subdivisions of the peritoneum:
LISTED
Mesentery
Mesocolon
Greater omemtum
Lesser omemtum
Subdivisions of the peritoneum:

Mesentery
double layerer portion of the peritoneum

shaped like a fan

handle portion attaches to the abdominal wall

the expanded long edge is attached to the small intestine

nerves that supply the intestine are between the layers of the mesentery and mesocolon layer
Subdivisions of the peritoneum:

Mesocolon
the section of the peritoneum that extends from the colon to the posterior agdominal wall
Subdivisions of the peritoneum:

Greater omentum
a large double layer of the peritoneum containing much fat hangs like an apron over the front of the intestines
Subdivisions of the peritoneum:

Lesser omentum
a smaller membrane that extends between the stomach and the liver
Organs of the digestive tract: (alimentary tract)
(gastrointestinal tract)
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
ailment means:
food
The digestive tract is a:
muscular tube extending through the body
Mouth (oral cavity)
a substance begins the travel through the digestive tract
The Mouth has what digestive functions:
- ingestion (recieves food)
- mastication (breaks food
down)
- saliva (lubricates food/begins
digestion of food)
- deglitination (swollowing)
Oral Cavity:

The tongue:
a muscular organ that projects into the mouth:

- aids chewing/swollowing
- a principal organ of speech
- has special surface receptors
- taste buds
Oral Cavity:

Teeth:
- 2 - 6 yrs 20 teeth baby teeth
(decidious)
- adult teeth 32 permanent
cutting teeth = incisors
cuspids = canines/eyeteeth
molars = grinding teeth
Oral Cavity:

Cutting Teeth (incisors)
anterior part of the oral cavity
Oral Cavity:

Cuspids (canines/eyeteeth)
Lateral to the incisors

pointed teeth with deep roots that are used for more forceful gripping and tearing
Oral Cavity:

Molars:
posterior

large grinding teeth
(2) premolars
(3) molars
Oral Cavity:

Each quadrant has (adult):
From anterior to posterior:
(2) incisors
(1) cuspid
(5) molars
Oral Cavity:

the first (8) baby teeth are:
incisors
Oral Cavity:

During the first 2 yrs permanent teeth develope within the :
upper jaw (maxilla) and
lower jaw (mandible)
Oral Cavity:

Baby teeth develop from what:
buds present at birth
Oral Cavity:

1st permanent teeth to appear:
(4) 6-yr molars

come before the baby teeth are lost
Oral Cavity:

When do wisdom teeth appear:
During or after late teens
What is the main substance of the tooth:
dentin (a calcified substance harder than bone)
what does the soft pulp in the tooth contain:
blood vessels and nerves
the cum
gingiva
Enamel is:
the hardest substance in the body
Oral Cavity:

the roots of the tooth are covered with:
Cementum ( a rigid connective tissue)
Pharynx:
the throat
Oropharynx:
oral part of the pharynx

visisble part when mouth opened/toungue depressed

extends upward into the nasal cavity (nasopharnyx)

downward into the larnyx (larygeal pharnyx)
Palatine tonsils
visible on either side of the oropharynx
Oral cavity:

Soft palate:
tissue tht forms the posterior roof of the oral cavity
Oral cavity:

Uvula
a hanging, soft, fleshy V-shaped mass
Bolus
food
Oral Cavity:

the roots of the tooth are covered with:
Cementum ( a rigid connective tissue)
Soft palate and uvula are raised when swollowing to prevent:
food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity
Pharynx:
the throat
The tongue is raised when swollowing to:
seal the oral cavity.
Oropharynx:
oral part of the pharynx

visisble part when mouth opened/toungue depressed

extends upward into the nasal cavity (nasopharnyx)

downward into the larnyx (larygeal pharnyx)
The trachea is guarded during swollowing by:
the epiglottis ( a leaf shaped cartilage)
Palatine tonsils
visible on either side of the oropharynx
Oral cavity:

Soft palate:
tissue tht forms the posterior roof of the oral cavity
Oral cavity:

Uvula
a hanging, soft, fleshy V-shaped mass
Bolus
food
Soft palate and uvula are raised when swollowing to prevent:
food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity
The tongue is raised when swollowing to:
seal the oral cavity.
The trachea is guarded during swollowing by:
the epiglottis ( a leaf shaped cartilage)
Oral Cavity:

the roots of the tooth are covered with:
Cementum ( a rigid connective tissue)
Pharynx:
the throat
Oropharynx:
oral part of the pharynx

visisble part when mouth opened/toungue depressed

extends upward into the nasal cavity (nasopharnyx)

downward into the larnyx (larygeal pharnyx)
Palatine tonsils
visible on either side of the oropharynx
Oral cavity:

Soft palate:
tissue tht forms the posterior roof of the oral cavity
Oral cavity:

Uvula
a hanging, soft, fleshy V-shaped mass
Bolus
food
Oral Cavity:

the roots of the tooth are covered with:
Cementum ( a rigid connective tissue)
Soft palate and uvula are raised when swollowing to prevent:
food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity
Oral Cavity:

the roots of the tooth are covered with:
Cementum ( a rigid connective tissue)
Pharynx:
the throat
The tongue is raised when swollowing to:
seal the oral cavity.
Pharynx:
the throat
Oropharynx:
oral part of the pharynx

visisble part when mouth opened/toungue depressed

extends upward into the nasal cavity (nasopharnyx)

downward into the larnyx (larygeal pharnyx)
The trachea is guarded during swollowing by:
the epiglottis ( a leaf shaped cartilage)
Oropharynx:
oral part of the pharynx

visisble part when mouth opened/toungue depressed

extends upward into the nasal cavity (nasopharnyx)

downward into the larnyx (larygeal pharnyx)
Palatine tonsils
visible on either side of the oropharynx
Palatine tonsils
visible on either side of the oropharynx
Oral cavity:

Soft palate:
tissue tht forms the posterior roof of the oral cavity
Oral cavity:

Soft palate:
tissue tht forms the posterior roof of the oral cavity
Oral cavity:

Uvula
a hanging, soft, fleshy V-shaped mass
Oral cavity:

Uvula
a hanging, soft, fleshy V-shaped mass
Bolus
food
Bolus
food
Soft palate and uvula are raised when swollowing to prevent:
food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity
Soft palate and uvula are raised when swollowing to prevent:
food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity
The tongue is raised when swollowing to:
seal the oral cavity.
The tongue is raised when swollowing to:
seal the oral cavity.
The trachea is guarded during swollowing by:
the epiglottis ( a leaf shaped cartilage)
The trachea is guarded during swollowing by:
the epiglottis ( a leaf shaped cartilage)
Esophogus
muscular tube

mucous lubricates food

food is moved by peristalsis into the stomach
Esphogus must travel through and opening in what and is called what:
1. diaphram
2. esophoageal hiatus
Hiatal hernia:
a weakness in the diaphram where the esophogus passes through it
The stomach:
a J shaped organ

superior left region of the abdominal cavity
The left facing arch of the stomach is called:
the greater curvature
The righ facing arch of the stomach is called:
the lesser curvature
The superior rounded portion of the stomach under the left side of the diaphram is called:
the fundus
A Sphincter
a muscular ring that regulates the size of an opening

there are (2) sphincters:

Lower esophageal (LES)
or cardiac sphincter

Pyloric sphincter
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES):
Separates the esophogus from the region of the stomach that is close to the heart
Pyloric sphincter
betwen the far end of the stomach and the small intstine
Pylorus
regulates how fast food moves into the small intestine

the region of the stomach leading into the pyloric sphincter
Functions of the stomach:
storage pouch

digestive organ

churn

special cells in the lining mix to form gastric juices (hydrochloric acid, pepsin)

some cells secrete mucus to protect the stomach lining from digestive secretions

- the stomach can hold 1/2
galon of food/liquid
Hydrochloric acid (HCI):
strong acid

breaks down proteins/foreign organisms
Pepsin
protein digesting enzyme produced in inactive form

activated when food enters the stomach and HCI is produced
Chyme (juice)
highly acidic

semiliquid mixture of gastric juice and food

leaves the stomach and enters teh small intestine
Small Intestine:
the longest part of the digestive tract

smaller in diameter (1")
Parts of the Small Intestine:
1. Duodenum (10")
2. Jejunum (2/5)
3. Ileum (remainder)
Duodenal Mucosa /Submcosa contain glands that:
- secrete large amounts of mucus to protect the small intestine from chyme (strongly acidic)
Mucosa cells of the small intestine also secrete:
enzymes that digest:
proteins
carbohydrates
Where do the digestive juices entering the small intestine through a small opening in the deodunum come from:
- liver
- pancreas
Where does most of the digestion take place:
The small intestine
Where does most of the absorption of the digested food, water and minerals take place:
Through the walls of the small intestine
To increase the organs surface for absorption purposes the mucosa is formed into:
villi (millions of fingerlike projections) which give the inner surface a velvet like appearance
Microvilli
epithelial cells of the billi that have small projecting folds of the plasma membrane
Each villi contains blood vessels through which most digestion products are:
absorbed into the blood
Each villus contains specialized lymphatic capillary called:
Lacteal
Lacteal
through which fats are absorbed into the lymph
The Large Intestine:
2.5" wide
1.5 meters long
The large intestines outer longitudinal muscle fibers in its wall form 3 separate surface bands called:
Teniae Coli
Teniae Coli do what to give the large intestine its appearance:
draw up the organs wall to give it a pucker appearance
What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine:
1. Deodunum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum
The large intestine begins in the :
lower right region of the abdomen
Divisions of the Large Intestine:
First part of the Lrg intestine: Cecum (a small pouch)

2nd part of the Lrg intestine:
Assending colon (along the right side of the abdomen toward the liver)

Bends at the Colic (heptic) flexture and extends across the abdomen as the "Transverse Colon"

It bends again at the left Colic (spenic) flexture and extends inferiorly on the left side of the abdomen into the pelvis forming the "Descending Colon"

The distal portion bends backward into an S shape forming the "Sigmoid Colon" which continues down to empty into the rectum
Ileocecal valve:
a sphincter that prevents food from traveling backward into the small intestine

located between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum
Vermiform appendix (wormlike):

Usually just APPENDIX
a small blind tube containing lymphoid tissue

attached to the cecum
Rectum
a temporary storage area for indigestible or noabsorbable food residue
Anal canal
a narrow terminal portion of the large intesting that leads to the outside through an opening called the anus
Anus
an opening in the anal canal though which feces exit
The large intestines secrete a large amount of :
mucus but no enzymes
Tinaie coli
The large intestines outer longitudinal muscle fibers in its wall that form 3 separate surface bands
Food is not digested in this organ:
The large intestine
The large intestine does what:
Reabsorbes water

Stores undigestable food which is formed into solid waste (feces)
Feces is eliminated from the body by a process called:
defecation
Wht provides voluntary control over defectaion?
an anal sphincter
What happens to food that is stored in the large intestine:
bacteria that live in the colon act to produce vitamin K and some of the B complex vitamins
What do accessory organs release:
secretions into the digestive tract through ducts
the salivary glands deliver their secretions into the:
mouth
How are all other secretions released from accessory organs released:
Into the duodenum
While food is in the mouth it is mixed with:
saliva (moistens food and facilitates mastication and deglutination)
Bacteria that live in the large intestine produce what from the food that is stored in it:
Vitamin K
B-Complex vitamins
Saliva helps:
- keep teeth and mouth clean

- reduce bacterial growth because it contains some antibodies and an enzyme (lysozyme)
Salavary amylase (contained in the saliva)
begins the digestive process by converting starch into sugar
Saliva is manufactured by (3) pairs of glands:
Parotid Glands -
Largest of the group
Located inferior/anterior to
the ear

Submandibular (submaxilary) -
Located near the lower jaw

Sublingual Glands -
Under the tongue
The liver (hepat)
the body's largest glandular organ

superior right portion of the abdominal cavity under the dome of the diaphram
The liver is supplied with blood by two vessels:
- the portal vein

- hepatic artery

the vessels deliver about 1.5 quarts (1.6L) of blood every minute
The hepatic artery carries:
Oxygenated blood
The Venus portal system carries:
Blood that is rich in digestive end products
The liver affects:
- blood
- metabolism
- blood composition
- elimination of waste
Major functions of the liver:
1. Manufactures bile
2. Stores glucose in the form
of glycogen
3. Converts glycogen into
glucose
4. Modifications of fats
5. Storae of some vitamins/iron
6. Formation of blood plasma
proteins (albumin, globulins
and clotting factors)
7. Destruction of old red blood
cells
8. Synthesis of urea
9. Detoxification
When blood sugars fall below normal, liver cells:
convert glycogen to glucose and releases it into the blood stream to restore normal blood sugar concentration
Bilirubin is a byproduct of:
the breakdown and elimination fo red blood cells
Bilirubin is a:
pigment
Urea:
a waste product of metabolism

released into the blood and transported to the kidneys for elimination
detoxification
the removal of poisonous properties / harmful substances

- examples: alcohol and certain drugs
What is the livers main digestive function:
the production of bile (substance needed for the processing of fats)
The salts in fat act like a detergent to:
emulsify fat (break up fat into small droplets more easily affected by digestive enzymes)
Bile also aids:
fat absorption from the small intestine
Bile leaves the lobes of the liver by (2) ducts that merge to form:
The common hepatic duct
The Common Hepatic Duct collects bile from the:
Gallbladder and delivers it to the Duodenum
The Gallbladder is a:
muscular sac on the inferior surface of the liver that stores bile
How often does the liver manufacture bile:
CONTINOUSLY
How often does the body need bile each day:
only a few times
Bile from the liver flows into the heptic ducts then to the:
Cystic Duct (connected with the gallbladder)
When chyme enters the duodenum, the galbladder contracts, squeezing bile through the:
Cystic duct and into the common bile duct, leading to the duodenum.
What does the Gallbladder do:
stores bile
The pancreas
a long gland that edxtends from the duodenum to the spleen
Pancreas produces:
enxymes that digest fats, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
Pancreas also release large amounts of:
sodium bicarbonate (alkaline/basic fluid) that nuetralizes the acidic chyme in small intest. protecting the lining of the digestive tract
The pacreas also functions as the endocrine gland, producing the hormones:
insulin and glucagon that regulate sugar metabolism
Digestion requires:
enzymes
Enzymes are:
catalysts

substances that speed up the rate of chemical reactions

but are not changed or used up in the conversion
Enzymens are:
proteins

highly specific to their actions
The enzyme, Amylase:
Carbohydrate-digesting enzyme that only splits the starch into double sugar
Peptides
small units of protein
Hydrolysis:
spitting by means of water

water is added to nutrient molecules as they are split by enzymes
How much water is secreted into the digestive tract daily:
7 liters
How much fluid is taken in by food and drink daily:
about 2 liters
Water is used to:
produce digestive juices

to dilute food (move more easily through the digestive tract)

in the chemicl process of digestion
Salivary amylase initiates the digestive process by:
changing some of the srarches into sugar
When food reaches the stomach it is acted upon by gastric juices containing:
hydrochloric acid (HCI)

enzymes
Hydrochloric acid breaks down:
proteins and prepares them for digestion

activates the enzyme: pepsin
Pepsin is secreted by:
gastric cells in the inactive form

once activate by HCI, works to digest protein
Lipase is secreted by:
the stomach

a fat enzyme
What is the name of the first part of the small intestine
Duodenum
Lipase:
Highly activated pancreatic enzyme digests fats
Bile:
divides fat into tiny particles
With the help of pancreatic lipase, fats are usually broken down into (2) simpler compounds:
fatty acids

glycerol (glycerin)
If pacreatic lipase is absent:
fats are expelled with the fecesin undigested form
Amylase enzyme changes:
starch into sugar
Trypsin enzyme splits:
proteins into amino acids which are small enough to be absorbed through the intestine
Nucleases enzyme digests:
the nucleic acids of DNA and RNA
IMPORTANT NOTE:

MOST DIGESTION OCCURS IN:
THE SMALL INTESTINE UNDER THE ACTION OF THE PANCREATIC JUICES
Pancreatic juices have the ability to:
break down all types of foods
What happens when pancreatic juices are absent:
serious digestive disturbances always occur.
4 Layers of the Digestive Tract:
1. Mucosa
2. Submucosa
3. Smooth Muscle
4. Serosa
Mucosa
(epithelium) responsible for chemical digestion and absorption
Submucosa
(connective tissues) conatins blood vessels and helps regulate digestive activity
Smooth muscle
responsible for perstalsis
Serosa
(connective tissue) forms the visceral peritoneum
The path of a bolus of food:
Mouth, pharynx, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus
The largest glanduar organ:
The liver
The Funtions of the Liver:
Bile production
Glucose storage (glycogen)
Fat modification
Vitamin and iron storage
Plasma protein production
Red Blood Cell recycling
The muscular sac on the inferior surface of the liver that stores and concentrates bile:
The gallbladder
The long gland that extends from the duodenum to the spleen:
the pancreas
Bile and pancreatic juice are delivered to the small intestine by a common connection to the duodenum
Common bile duct
Cystic duct comes from the:
gallbladder
Common hepatic (LFT, RT) come from the:
liver
the Common hepatic duct and the cystic duct form the:
Common bile duct
Fats and lipid-soluable vitamins are absorbed into the lymph by:
lacteal
Hormones that regulate digestion are:
Gastrin
GIP
Secretin
CCI
Inflammatory bowel disease
Chrones Disease
Ulcerative colitis
Volvus
twisting of the bowel - can be fatal
Intussussception
when part of the bowel slips into a part below it
Hepatitis may be caused by:
Drugs, alcohol, or viral infection