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90 Cards in this Set

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Abortion
Loss of pregnancy before the fetus is viable outside the uterus; miscarriage
Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP)
A fetal protein produced in the yok sac for the first 6 weeks of gestation and then by the fetal liver
Amenorrhea
Suppression or absence of menstruation
Amniocentesis
Removal of amniotic fluid by insertion of a needle into the amniotic sac; amniotic fluid is used to assess fetal health or maturity
Amnion
The inner of the two membranes that form the sac containing the fetus and the amniotic fluid
Areola
Pigmented ring surrounding the nipple of the breast
Ballotement
A technique of palpation to detect or examine a floating object in the body; in obstetrics, the fetus, when pushed, floats away and then returns to touch the examiner's fingers
Braxton Hicks Contractions
Intermittent painless contractions of the uterus that may occur every 10 - 20 minutes. They occur more frequently toward the end of the pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken for true labor signs
Cervix
The "neck" between the external os and the body of the uterus. The lower end of the cervix extends into the vagina.
Chadwicks Sign
Violet bluish color of the vaginal mucous memberane caused by increased vascularity; visible from about the fourth week of pregnancy.
Chloasma
Brownish pigmentation over the bridge of the nose and the cheeks during pregnancy and in some women who are taking oral contraceptives. Also called the mask of pregnancy.
Chorion
The fetal membrane closest to the intrauterine wall that gives rise to the placenta and continues as the outer membrane surrounding the amnion.
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
Procedure in which a specimen of the chorionic villi is obtained from the edge of the developing placenta at about 8 weeks gestation. The sample can be used for chromosomal enzyme, and DNA tests.
Chromosomes
Threadlike structures within the nucleus of a cell that carry the genes.
Colostrum
Secretion from the breast before the onset of true lactation; contains many serum and white blood corpuscles. It has a high protein content, provides some immune properties and cleanses the newborn's intestinal tract of mucus and meconium.
Conception
Union of male sperm and female ovum; fertilization
Contraction Stress Test (CST or OST)
A method of assessing the reaction of the fetus to the stress of uterine contractions. This test may be utilized when contractions are occurring spontaneously or when contractions are artificially induced by oxytocin challenge test (OCT) or breast self stimulation test (BSST).
Diameters of the inlet of pelvis: True Conjugate or Conjugate Vera
Important diameter of the pelvis, measured from the center of the promontory of the sacrum to the back of the pubic symphysis (middle of the pubic crest)--estimated measurement
Diameters of the inlet of the pelvis: Transverse Diameter
Largest diameter of the inlet; determines shape of the pelvis
Diameters of the outlet of the pelvis: Transverse Diameter
Distance between the inner surface of one ischial tuberosity to the other
Diameters of the outlet of the pelvis: Anterior-Posterior Diameter
Distance from front to back including the mobility of the coccyx
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)also known as consumption coagulopathy
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also called consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. This depletes the body of its platelets and coagulation factors, and there is a paradoxically increased risk of hemorrhage.
Prolonged retention of a dead fetus may lead to DIC
Doppler Ultrasound
Handheld ultrasound device
Eclampsia
A major complication of pregnancy (cause unknown); it occurs more often in primigravida and is accompanied by elevated blood pressure, albuminuria, oliguria, tonic and clonic convulsions and coma. It may occur during pregnancy (usually after 20th week of gestation) or within 48 hours after childbirth.
Ectopic Pregnancy (aka oocyesis)
Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity; common sites are the abdomen, fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Embryo
The early stage of development of the young of any organism; In humans, the embryonic period is from about 2 - 8 weeks' gestation and is characterized by cellular differentiation and predominantly hyperplastic growth.
Estimated Date of Birth (EDB)
During a pregancy, the approximate date when the childbirth will occur; the "due date"
Fetal Heart Rate (FHR)
The number of times the fetal heart beats per minute; normal range is 120- 160
Fundal Height (McDonald's Method)
Tape measure is used to measure the distance from the top of the symphysis pubis over the curve to the top of the uterine fundus; generally correlates well with the weeks of gestation between 24 - 34 weeks
Fundus
The upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes
Gestation
Period of intratuterine development from conception through birth
Goodell's Sign
Softening of the cervix that occurs during the second month of pregnancy
Gravida (Multigravida, nulligravida, primigravida)
A pregnant woman; 2nd or greater pregnancy, never been pregnant, first pregnancy
Hegar's Sign
A softening of the lower uterine segment found upon palpation in the second or third month of pregnancy
HELLP Syndrome
A cluster of changes including: HEMOLYSIS, ELEVATED LIVER ENZYMES, and LOW PLATELET COUNT; sometimes associated with preeclampsia
Hemorrhagic Shock
Inadequate tissue perfusion to major organs due to blood loss; s/s: hypotension, tachycardia, altered mental staus, etc.
Hirsuitism
Excess hair growth (can be caused by ovarian tumors)
Hydramnios (aka polyhydramnios)
Excess of amniotic fluid leading to the overdistention of the uterus. Frequently seen in diabetic women, even if there is no coexisting fetal anomaly.
Hydatiform Mole
Degenerative process in chorionic villi, giving rise to multiple cysts and rapid growth of the uterus, with hemorrhage
Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Excessive vomiting during pregnancy, leading to dehydration and starvation
Incompetent Cervix
The premature dilation of the cervix, usually in the second trimester of pregnancy
Intrauterine Growth Retardation/Restriction (IUGR)
Fetal undergrowth due to any etiology, such as intrauterine infection, deficient nutrient supply or congenital malformation. A term used to describe fetuses falling below the 10th percentile in ultrasonic estimation of weight at a given gestational age.
Kegel's exercises
Perineal muscle tightening that strengthens the pubococcygeus muscle and increases its tone
Last Menstrual Period (LMP)
The last normal menstrual period experienced by the woman prior to pregnancy; sometimes used to calculate the infant's gestational age
Lamaze Method
A method of childbirth preparation
Leukorrhea
Mucous discharge from the vagina or cervical canal that may be normal or pathologic, as in the presence of infection.
Lightening
Moving of teh fetus and uterus downward into the pelvic cavity
Lithotomy Position
The Lithotomy position is the position of lying on the back with knees bent and elevated above the hips with the thighs apart.
Linea Nigra
The line of darker pigmentation extending from the umbilicus to the pubis noted in some women during the later months of pregnancy.
McDonald's Sign
A probable sign of pregnancy characterized by an ease in flexing the body of the uterus against the uterus.
Montgomer's tubercles
The glands of Montgomery, or Montgomery's tubercles, are the tiny "bumps" that are scattered around the areola (the darker area which rings the nipple). During pregnancy these glands enlarge and they remain enlarged while breastfeeding. They can vary greatly in number, averaging between 4 and 28 per areola. Montgomery originally described these glands as "a constellation of miniature nipples scattered over a milky way."

It is believed that these sebaceous, or oil-producing glands, secrete a lubricating and protective substance, altering the skin's pH and discouraging bacterial growth (Williams 1992). These glands also secrete a small amount of milk (Lawrence 1995). This lubrications helps to keep the skin healthy and the areola elastic.
Nagele's rule
Method of determining the estimated date of birth= first day of LMP - 3 months + 7 days
Non-stress test (NST)
An assessment method by which the reaction or response of the fetal heart rate to fetal movement is evaluated.
Internal os
An inside mount or opening; the opening between the uterus and the cervix
External os
The opening between the cervix and the vagina
Parity/Para; Multipara, Nullpara, primipara
Woman who as borne offspring of viable age
Parturition
childbirth
Perinatal
The period around birth (5 months prior and 1 month after)
Perineum
The tissue between the anus and vagina
Placenta previa
Abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower uterine segment: classification based on proximity to the cervical os (total, partial, marginal)
Preeclampsia or Toxemia;
Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)
A condition in pregnancy, also known as pre-eclampsia (or preeclampsia) characterized by abrupt hypertension (a sharp rise in blood pressure), albuminuria (leakage of large amounts of the protein albumin into the urine) and edema (swelling) of the hands, feet, and face. Pre-eclampsia is the most common complication of pregnancy. It affects about 5% of pregnancies. It occurs in the third trimester (the last third) of pregnancy.

Pre-eclampsia occurs most frequently in first pregnancies. It is more common in women who have diabetes or who are carrying twins.
Preterm
Any infant born before 38 weeks
Ptyalism
Excessive salivation
Quickening
The first fetal movements felt by the pregnant woman, usually between 16 - 18 weeks gestation
Striae Gravidarum
Stretch marks; shiny reddish marks that appear on the abdomen, breasts, thighs and buttocks of pregnant women as a result of stretching the skin
Supine hypotension
Enlarging uterus puts pressure on the vena cava when woman is supine. This pressure interferes with blood flow and produces a marked decrease in blood pressure with accompanying dizziness, pallor and clamminess (can be corrected by having woman lie on left side).
STDs Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections oridarily transmitted by direct sexual contact with an infected individual.
Term
Normal duration of a pregnancy 38-41 weeks
Ultrasonography
High-frequency sound waves that may be directed, through the use of a transducer, into the maternal abdomen. Ultrasonic sound waves allow identification of maternal and fetal tissues, bones and fluids.
Uterine Souffle
Swooshing sound of maternal heart rate over the uterus
Version
Turning the fetus inutero
Vertex
The top or crown of the head
Viability
Ability to survive outside the mother
Zygote
Fertilized egg
3 Positive (Diagnostic) Signs of pregnancy
1) Fetal heartbeat
2) Fetal movement
3) Visualization by ultrasound
10 Objective (Probable) Signs of Pregnancy
1) Softening of cervix GOODELL'S SIGN
2) Chadwick's sign: bluish coloration
3) Hegar's sign: softening of the isthmus of uterus
4) McDonald's sign: ease of flexing the body of the uterus against the cervix
5) Enlargement of the abdomen
6) Braxton Hicks ctx
7) Uterine/Funic souffle
8) Changes of pigmentation/stretch marks
9) Palpation of fetus
10) PG test + for HCG
6 Subjective (Presumptive) Signs of Pregnancy
1) Amenorrhea
2) Nausea Vomiting
3) Excessive fatigue
4) Urinary frequency
5) Changes in breasts
6) Quickening
Acceleration
Periodic increase in the baseline fetal heartrate
Amniotomy (AROM)
The artificial rupturing of the amniotic membrane
Attitude
In perinatal care, the relationship of the fetal parts to each other
Augmentation of Labor
The stimulation of uterine contractions after the spontaneous onset of labor, with or without ruptured fetal membranes, for the purpose of accomplishing birth
Bloody show
Pink tinged mucous secretions resulting from ruture of small capillaries as the cervix effaces and dilates
Breech presentation
A birth in which the buttocks and/or feet are presented instead of the head
6 Cardinal movements of labor
The positional changes of the fetus as it moves through the birth canal during labor and birth. The positional changes are: 1. descent, 2. flexion, 3. internal rotation, 4. extension, 5. restitution, and 6. external rotation
Caput succedaneum
Swelling or dedma occurring in or under the fetal scalp during labor
Contraction
Tightening and shortening of the uterine muscles during labor, causing effacement and dilation odf the cervix; contributes to the downward and outward descent of the fetus
Cephalic presentation
Birth in which the fetal head is presenting against the cervix
Cephalopelvic disproportion
A condition in which the fetal head is of such a shape or size, or in such a position, that it cannot pass through the maternal pelvis
Crowning
Appearance of the presenting fetal part at the vaginal orifice during labor
Deceleration
Periodic decrease in the baseline fetal heartrate