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65 Cards in this Set

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Cephalexin (Keflex)
-- Pharmacologic class
-- Therapeutic class
-- Pregnancy risk category
-- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: first-generation cephalosporin
Th Cl: antibiotic
PG Cl: B
CS Cl: N/A
Cephalexin (Keflex)
-- Indications
-- Action
Hinders or kills susceptible bacteria by inhibiting cell-wall synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotic.
Cephalexin (Keflex)
-- Typical dose adults
250 mg p.o. q6hr--maximum 4 g daily.
Cephalexin (Keflex)
-- Adverse Reactions
anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, pseudomembranous colitis, thrombocytopenia, transient neutropenia, anaphylaxis
Cephalexin (Keflex)
-- Nursing Process
* to minimize GI reactions, give drug with food or milk
* instruct patient to take drug as prescribed even after he feels better
Restoril (Temazepam) -- Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: benzodiazepine
Th Cl: sedative-hypnotic
PG Cl: X
CS Cl: 4
Restoril (Temazepam)
-- Indications -- Action
Acts on limbic system, thalamus and hypothalamus of CNS to produce hypnotic/sleep results.
Restoril (Temazepam)
-- Typical dose adults
7.5 – 30 mg p.o. before bedtime
Restoril (Temazepam)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: Daytime drowsiness, dizziness, abnormal dreams, headache
Drug Interactions: CNS depressants & opioid analgesics may increase depression—use w caution
Restoril (Temazepam)
-- Nursing Process
* watch patient doesn’t try to get out of bed and fall
Zolpidem Tartrate (Ambien) -- Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: imidazopyridine
Th Cl: hypnotic
PG Cl: B
CS Cl: N/A
Zolpidem Tartrate (Ambien)
-- Indications -- Action
Interacts w the benzodiapine receptor site on the GABA receptor to produce hypnotic effect—no muscle relaxant or anticonvulsant properties.
Zolpidem Tartrate (Ambien)
-- Typical dose adults
10 – 12.5 mg p.o. before bedtime
Zolpidem Tartrate (Ambien)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: Daytime drowsiness, dizziness, abnormal dreams, headache
Drug Interactions: CNS depressants & opioid analgesics may increase CNS depression—use w caution
Zolpidem Tartrate (Ambien)
-- Nursing Process
* take on an empty stomach (immediately before bed) for max absorption
* short term drug
* watch patient doesn’t try to get out of bed and fall
Ferrous Sulfate (Iron Supplement) -- Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: oral iron supplement
Th Cl: hematinic
PG Cl: A
CS Cl: N/A
Ferrous Sulfate (Iron Supplement)
-- Indications -- Action
Binds to carrier protein (transferrin) then to bone marrow for incorporation into hemoglobin
Ferrous Sulfate (Iron Supplement)
-- Typical dose adults
150 -300 mg po daily in divided doses
Ferrous Sulfate (Iron Supplement)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: Temporary staining of teeth; GI disturbance (nausea, vomiting, constipation, black stools)
Drug Interactions: Vit C increases absorption, avoid taking w dairy decreases absorption (also antacids, tetracycline)
Ferrous Sulfate (Iron Supplement)
-- Nursing Process
* Patient Ed: black stools & GI disturbance common
* Do not give with milk or antacids
*Vit C may increase absorption
* Best absorbed on an empty stomach but give w food b/c of GI disturbance
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, APAP) -- Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: para-aminophenol deriv
Th Cl: non-opioid analgesic; anti-pyretic

PG Cl: B
CS Cl: N/A
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, APAP)
-- Indications -- Action
Analgesia by inhibiting prostaglandin syn; anti-pyretic effect by acting on hypothalamic heat reg. center
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, APAP)
-- Typical dose adults
40 – 650 mg q 4-6 h prn
po or pr
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, APAP)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: Liver damage; hypoglycemia, blood cell damage
Drug Interactions: warfarin increased risk of bleeding;
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, APAP)
-- Nursing Process
* Tell patient for short term use only (od or lt use can cause liver damage)
* Not for fever over 103.1, lasting longer than 3 days or recurring
Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin) Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: salicylate
Th Cl: non-opioid analgesic; antiplatelet drug; anti-pyretic;anti-inflammatory

PG Cl: C / D in 3rd Trimester
CS Cl: N/A
Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin)
-- Indications -- Action
Analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting prostaglandin syn; anti-pyretic effect by acting on hypothalamus to cause vasodilation
Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin)
-- Typical dose adults
325 – 650 mg q 4-6 h prn
po or pr (80 mg prophylaxis)
Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: GI bleeding, GI distress, tinnitus (hearing loss), Reyes Syndrome, angioedema, anaphylaxis, thrombocytopenia
Drug Interactions: warfarin and heparin increased risk of bleeding;
Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin)
-- Nursing Process
* Give with food, milk, antacid or large glass H20 to minimize GI disturbance
* Best absorbed on an empty stomach but give w food b/c of GI disturbance
Nitroglycerin
Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: nitrate
Th Cl: antianginal; vasodilator
PG Cl: C
CS Cl: N/A
Nitroglycerin
-- Indications -- Action
Acts on vascular smooth muscle tissue of VEINS; decreases cardiac oxygen demand by decreasing diastolic pressure; increases blood flow through CORONARY vessels increasing oxygen supply
Nitroglycerin
-- Typical dose adults
SL 0.3 – 0.6 mg q5 min for up to 15 min.
Nitroglycerin
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: GI bleeding, GI distress, tinnitus (hearing loss), Reyes Syndrome, angioedema, anaphylaxis, thrombocytopenia
Drug Interactions: interactions w other hypertensives can decrease bp too much
Nitroglycerin
-- Nursing Process
* monitor vital signs & drug response (esp bp—excessive hypotension may worsen MI)
* take drug regularly, keep handy, do not abruptly stop
* use lowest dose to avoid building up tolerance to drug
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: cardiac glycoside
Th Cl: anti-arrhytmic; inotropic
PG Cl: C
CS Cl: N/A
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
-- Indications -- Action
Strengthens myocardial contractions by acting on CNS to enhance vagal tone (slowing through SA / AV nodes, resulting in an anti-arrythmic effect
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
-- Typical dose adults
p.o. 0.05 – 0.5 mg for slow effect; 0.75 – 1.25 mg for rapid effect
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, visual disturbances
Drug Interactions: avoid antacids (decrease absorption), avoid diuretics and corticosteroids that lower K level (precipitating toxicity)
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
-- Nursing Process
* monitor vital signs & drug response (must check apical pulse: ok between 60 – 100 bpm)
* blood serum level of digoxin 0.5-2 ng/ml
* low K levels can precipitate toxicity: instruct patient to eat foods high in K
Furosemide (Lasix)
Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: loop diuretic
Th Cl: diuretic; anti-hypertensive
PG Cl: C
CS Cl: N/A
Furosemide (Lasix)
-- Indications -- Action
Inhibits NaCl reabsorption (at the loop of henle) & promotes H20 and NaCl excretion (also K, Ca, Mg)
Furosemide (Lasix)
-- Typical dose adults
p.o, iv or im usual initial 20 – 80 mg bid
Furosemide (Lasix)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: hyperglycemia, hypotension, hypokalemia,
Drug Interactions: may intensify other hypotensive therapies, decreases hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics, effects blunted by NSAIDS
Furosemide (Lasix)
-- Nursing Process
* avoid giving at night--nocturia
* encourage foods high in K
Enalaprilat (Vasotec)
Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: ACE inhibitor
Th Cl: anti-hypertensive
PG Cl: C / D (2nd/3rd Trimester)
CS Cl: N/A
Enalaprilat (Vasotec)
-- Indications -- Action
Decrease of angiotensin 2 levels: vasodilation, decr blood volume Increase of bradykinin levels: vasodilation, cough, risk of angioedema
Enalaprilat (Vasotec)
-- Typical dose adults
Initially 5 mg po daily; usual dose 10 – 40 mg daily
Enalaprilat (Vasotec)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: cough, angioedema, first-dose hypotension, hyperkalemia,Drug Interactions: may intensify other hypotensive therapies, decreases hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetics, effects blunted by NSAIDS
Enalaprilat (Vasotec)
-- Nursing Process
* obtain bp history before starting therapy; monitor K intake and serum K level
* educate patient about signs of angioedema (breathing difficulty, swollen lips & tongue)
Nifedipine (Procardia)
Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: calcium channel blocker
Th Cl: anti-anginal
PG Cl: C
CS Cl: N/A
Nifedipine (Procardia)
-- Indications -- Action
Reduces B.P. and prevents angina by blocking calcium channels in peripheral arterioles lowering arterial pressure. Decreases myocardial contractility and O2 demand.
Nifedipine (Procardia)
-- Typical dose adults
p.o. 10 – 60 mg daily
Nifedipine (Procardia)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: dizziness, headache, light-headedness, flushing, heart failure, MI, hypokalemia, pulmonary edema
Drug Interactions: quinidine, betablockers: cause hypotension DO NOT USE WITH magnesium sulfate
Nifedipine (Procardia)
-- Nursing Process
* monitor bp regularly; monitor K levels
* when quick response to drug needed: have patient bite and swallow capsule: monitor bp and ekg
* temporary worsening of angina may occur at onset of therapy
* ghost capsule may appear in stools
Aluminum Hydroxide (Amphojel)
-- Pharmacologic class -- Therapeutic class -- Pregnancy risk category -- Controlled substance category
Ph Cl: aluminum salt
Th Cl: antacid
PG Cl: C
CS Cl: N/A
Aluminum Hydroxide (Amphojel)
-- Indications -- Action
Relieves GI discomfort by reducing total acid load in GI tract, elevation in pH reduces pepsin activity; relief from peptic ulcer
Aluminum Hydroxide (Amphojel)
-- Typical dose adults
p.o. 300 – 600 mg DO NOT GIVE WITH OTHER ORAL DRUGS
Aluminum Hydroxide (Amphojel)
-- Adverse Reactions / Drug Interactions
Adverse Reactions: Anorexia, constipation, intestinal obstruction
Drug Interactions: interferes with absorption
Aluminum Hydroxide (Amphojel)
-- Nursing Process
* assess patient comfort before and after
* do not give w/in 2 hours of another drug
* patient education: stools might have white streaks, shake suspension well and follow with a drink, how to avoid constipation
* patients on low sodium diets need to use cautiously
SIDE EFFECTS OF INSULIN: describe the signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia
* blood glucose under 50 mg/dL
* rapid drop in blood sugar may include: tachycardia, palpitations, sweating, nervousness
* more gradual decrease in blood sugar may include: confusion, fatigue, drowsiness, headache, excessive hunger
SIDE EFFECTS OF INSULIN: describe the signs/symptoms of hyperglycemia
* polyuria
* polydipsia
* ketonuria
* weight loss
SHORT ACTING: REGULAR/SEMILENTE INSULIN
1) Time of Onset
2) Peak time
3) Duration
1) Time of Onset: 30 - 60 min.
2) Peak time: 1 - 5 hours
3) Duration: 6 - 10 hours
INTERMEDIATE ACTING (NPH/LENTE) INSULIN
1) Time of Onset
2) Peak time
3) Duration
1) Time of Onset 1 - 2 hours
2) Peak time: 6-14 hours
3) Duration: 16 - 24 hours
LONG ACTING (PZI/ULTRA LENTE)INSULIN
1) Time of Onset
2) Peak time
3) Duration
1) Time of Onset: over 1 hour
2) Peak time: None
3) Duration 24 hours