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37 Cards in this Set

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allele
One of two or more molecular forms of a gene that arise by mutation and specify slightly different versions of the same trait.
asexual reproduction
Any reproductive mode by which offspring arise from and inherit genes from just one parent.
centromere
Constricted part of a chromosome to which spindle microtubules attach.
chromosome number
Sum of all chromosomes in a given type of cell.
crossing over
At prophase I of meiosis, the reciprocal exchange of segments between two nonsister chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes; results in novel combinations of alleles.
diploid number
Total chromosome number in cells that have a pair of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.
egg
Female gamete.
fertilization
Fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus, the result being a zygote.
gametophyte
Multicelled, gamete-producing body (haploid) that forms during life cycles of some algae and all plants.
gene
Unit of information for a heritable trait in DNA, passed from parents to offspring.
haploid number
Total chromosome number in cells that have one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species.
homologous chromosome
One of a pair of chromosomes, identical in size, shape, and gene sequence, each inherited from a different parent. Nonidentical sex chromosomes are also considered homologs.
meiosis
Only nuclear division process that halves the chromosome number of a parental cell, to the haploid number. Forms gametes in animals and spores in plants.
oocyte
Immature egg.
ovum
Mature secondary oocyte; mature egg.
polar body
in vertebrates, one of four cells that forms by meiotic cell division of an oocyte but that does not become the ovum
sexual reproduction
Production of genetically variable offspring by meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization.
sister chromatids
Two identical DNA molecules (and associated proteins) attached at the centromere until they are separated from each other at mitosis or meiosis; each is then a separate chromosome.
sperm
Mature male gamete.
spore
A reproductive or resting structure of one or a few cells, often walled or coated; protects against harsh conditions, aids in dispersal, or both
sporophyte
A vegetative body that grows by way of mitotic cell divisions from a plant zygote and produces spore-bearing structures.
What is more efficient, sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction?
asexual reproduction, whereby an individual makes offspring that are copies of itself.
What are aphids?
plant sucking insects.
What 3 things does sexual reproduction require?
meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization.
What is asexual reproduction.
this is when something reproduces all by itself. In this process, one alone can produce offspring, and each of these offspring will inherit the same number and kinds of genes as its parent.
What are genes?
genes are stretches of chromosomes that contain all the heritable information that is necessary to create a new individual.
What is a clone?
an identical copy of the parent.
What is sexual reproduction?
sexual reproduction is where pairs of genes, one from the paternal and maternal, are paired together in the origin.
What is an allele?
each unique molecular form of the same gene.
What is the result of new combinations of alleles?
this will result in variation in traits... variation in traits is a foundation for evolutionary change.
Homologous chromosomes
means chromosomes that are alike
Where do male gametes originate in a flowering plant?
in the anther.
Where do female gametes originate in flowering plants?
in the ovules, which are inside the ovary.
Where do male gametes orignate in humans?
in the testis
Where do female gametes originate in humans?
in the ovary.
What is a haploid number?
haploid number (n) - meiosis halves the chromosome number, therefore gametes have a haploid number of chromosomes.
Remember to review section 9.3.
meiosis I: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphas I, telophase I

Meiosis II: prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II