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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Genes
Coded information in DNA that can be used to build an Organism
Gametes
Reprocutive Cells that transmit genes from one generation to the next
Locus
A Gene's specific location along the lengh of a chromosome
Asexual Reproduction
-One sole individual passes copies of all it'sgenes to It's offspring
-Mitosis
-exact copies of parent (clones)
Sexual Reproduction
-Two parents give they genes to their offspring, and each offspring has different combinations of genes inhereted by the two parents
-Meiosis
-genetically different
Somatic Cell
any other cell besides a gamete
Karyotype
The order in which chromosomes are put in, longest to smallest and are all in pairs
Homologous Chromosomes (homologues)
two chromosomes with the same lengh, centromere position, and staining pattern
Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes
-X and Y Chromosomes: determine an individuals sex

-all other Chromosomes
Diploid Cell
A cell containing two chromosome sets
(single set represented by n, diploid is 2n)
Haploid Cells
gamete cell that just has one chromosome set
(single set represented by n, haploid cell is n)
Fertiliation (Human life cycle)
the union of two gametes (egg and sperm) causes the fusion of their nuclei
Zygote
A fertilized egg, it contains a diploid set of chromosomes
Meiosis
A type of cell division that reduces the number of chromsomes into a haploid set so that a diploid set doesn't double
alternation of generations
A life cycle that includes both diploid and haploid multicellular stages.
(first generation produces a sporophyte, then the next generation is a gametophyte, and then switches between the two every generation)
Sporophyte
the multicellular diploid stage in alternation of generations
-meiosis in this stage creates haploid cells called spores
Spore
a Haploid cell created in the sporophyte stage of meiosis, and they can give rise to multicellular individuals without fusing with another cell
Gametophyte
a multicellular haploid stage created by a spore dividing mitotically
Meiosis I
first division of meiosis
Meiosis II
second division of Meiosis
Interphase (Meiosis)
-Chromosomes are replicated but remained uncondensed
-the Centrosome replicates
Prophase I
-longest phase of meiosis
-Chromosomes begin to condense homologues loosley pair along their lenghs, ligned by gene
-Crossing over and synapsis occurs along the chromosomes
Metaphase I
-Homologues align on the metaphse plate
-Chthromatids are connected to kinetochore microtubules from each poles
Anaphase I
-homologues move towards opposite poles
-sister chromotids stay attached at the centromere
Telophase II and cytokinesis
-two daughter cells form and the cytoplasm is divided simultaneously
-in some species the chromosomes decondense and the nuclear envelope and nucleoli re-form
Prophase II
-Spindle forms
-chromosomes still composed of two sister chromatids
Metaphase II
-Chromosomes on Metaphase plate
-chromosomes not genetically identical
-Kinetichores of spindle attach to the chromosomes
Anaphase II
-Centromeres of each chromosome finally seperate, and sister chromatides come a part
-sister chromosomes move towards opposite poles
Telophase II and Cytokinesis
-Nuclei and nuclear envelope forms
-four daughter cells are formed
-each daughter cell genetically distinct
Synapsis
when chromosomes become physically connectedby a zipper like structure called a synaptonemal complex
Crossing over
genetic rearrangement between nonsister chromotides
Tetrad
the four chromatids in a homologous pair
Chiasma (chiasmata, plural)
The X-shaped regions in tetrads
Three Major differences from Mitosis and Meiosis
1. Synapsis and Crossing over
2. Tetrads on the Metaphase plate
3. Speration of Homologues
Independent assortment
when all paternal and maternal homologous are seperated from each other in Meiosis I
Recombinant Chromosomes
Indidvidual chromosomes that carry genes (DNA) derived from two different parents