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15 Cards in this Set

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Meiosis
-Cell division that produces gametes
-These cells contain only half the number of chromosomes
-These cells are said to contain a haploid (n) number of chromosomes
-Meiosis occurs in two divisions
Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis:
-1 division
-diploid number (2n)
-2 daughter cells
-somatic cells
-development/growth/repair
-homologs do not associate

Meiosis:
-2 divisions
-haploid number (n)
-4 daughter cells
-gametes
-reproduction
-homologs associate (tetrads)
Principle of Segregation
each chromatid of a tetrad will end up in a different gamete
Principle of Independent Assortment
Alignment of chromosomes along the metaphase plate is indepedent of each other
Crossing over
exchange of alleles between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
nondisjunction
-homologous chrosomes fail to seprate in anaphase 1 or sister chromatids fail to seprare in anaphase 2
-result: one gamete with an extra chromosome/one gamete missing a chromosome
aneuploidy
offspring with an extra or missing chromosome
-trisomic: extra
-monosomic: missing one
examples: trisomy 21, turner syndrom(xo), metfafemale(xxx), klinefelter syndrome(xxy)(xyy)
trisomy 21
21st pair has three chromosomes
polyploidy
2 or more complete sets of chromosomes
point mutation
nucleotide of a gene
deletion
gene is delete
duplication
a delete fragment attaches to a chromatid of a homologous chromosome
inversion
deleted gene reattaches itself in reverse orientation
translocation
deleted fragment attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
cri du chat deletion
fragments of 5 breaks off