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30 Cards in this Set

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what is the cellular mechanism that reduces the cells by half the number of chromosomes of sex cells and enables sexual reporduction to occur
meiosis
meiosis produces what types of cells?
sex cells;gametes
what is necessary for all sexual reporducing organisms?
meiosis
meiosis prevents the doubling of what entity in the cell?
chromosomes
what is the union of two hapliod cells called?
fertilization
when fertilization occurs, what type of sex cell forms?
a diploid cell
in plants, meiosis results in the formation of what type of spores?
haploid spores
describe gametogenesis:
gametogenesis is the meiotic process by which a diploid cell reduces it's number of chromosomes to produce a haploid gamete
What is the process that results in a male gamete
spermatogenesis
what is the process that results in female gametes:?
oogenesis
Meiosis has how many successive divisions
2 divisions which produces four new cells, each of which are haploid
The first meiotic division encompasses all of the phases of what reproductive system"
mitosis
what are the results of the first meiotic cycle?
2 haploid cells
what happens to the chromosomes during interphase of meiosis?
the chromosomes are distinguishable as chromatin, replicate, which result in two sets of double stranded chromosomes
durring prophase 1, the chromosomes appear, what happens to the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane?
they disappear
when do the centrioles separate, and when does the spindle fibers appear?
prophase 1
there also another special occurence in prophase 1 what is this?
synapsis
does synapsis occur in mitosis and meiosis?
no it only occurs in the production of sex cells
What happens to the members of each chromosome during the synapsis period?
each pair of homologous chromosomes more close together. (they pair)

- xx
While the chromosomes intertwine, what is exhanged between the paird homologous chromosomes?
genetic information
What is the crossing over of genetic information that results in gene combinations called?
genetic recombination
what is genetic recombination?
genetic recombination is the crossing over of genetic information from one sister chromatid to another sister chromatid from the homologous chromosomes
during metaphase 1, each homologous chromosome lines up on what plate?
the metaphase plate
each chromosome pair is attached to the spindle fibers, but they do not separate. do the centromeres replicate as well?
no, the centromeres do not replicate
what happens during anaphase 1?
the synaptic pairs split, pulling each set of double-stranded chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell.
when does the two nuclei form, and the cells begin to separate?
telophase 1
what is the resting stage of meiosis?
interkinesis
what is not involved in interkinesis?
the replication of genetic material
the second phase of meiosis is the same as?
mitosis
what is the end result of meiosis
four haploid cells