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116 Cards in this Set

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alveol/o
alveolus (air sac)
bronch/o
bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)


e.g. bronchi/ectasis
bronchus /expansion or dilation
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)


laryng/o/spasm
larynx/involuntary contraction
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
nas/o

rhin/o
nose
or/o
mouth
ox/o
oxygen
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
phren/o
diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o


pneumon/o
air or lung
pulmon/o
lung
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
spir/o
breathing
thorac/o

pector/o

steth/o
chest


e.g. thorac/algia = chest/pain
tonsil/o
tonsil (almond)
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)


trache/o/sten/osis
windpipe/narrow/condition or increase
-pnea (additional suffix)
breathing

dys/pnea
difficult/breathing
capn/o


carb/o
carbon dioxide

hyper/capn/ia
above or excessive/carbon dioxide/pertaining to
hypo/capn/ia = below or deficient/
What is the pathway of air?
Nose -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi
-> lungs -> alveoli
What is the respiratory system composed of?
Organs & structures that function to exchange gases with the body.
What occurs when there is an "exchange of gases" - respiration?
Oxygen from the air is inhaled into the lungs and passes into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the lungs and is exhaled into the air.
What are two other names for respiration?
breathing or ventilation
What are the names for;

a. intake of air

b. outflow of air
a. inspiration or inhalation

b. expiration or exhalation
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behing the nasal passages
oropharynx
Central portion of pharynx between the roof of the mouth and upper edge of the epiglottis. Passageway for food and air.
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and esophagus
tonsils (palatine tonsils)
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion.
Made of lymphoid tissue.
adenoid (pharyngeal tonsil)
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords.
glottis
opening between the vocal cords of the larynx
epiglottis
a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea
windpipe; passageway of air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into right and left brochus
right and left bronchus
two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs
bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli (plural)

alvelous (singular)
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
lungs
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
pleura
membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity
potential space between visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
diaphragm


diaphragmat/o/cele
diaphragm/pouching or hernia
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
FUNCTION: aids in the respiration by moving up and down
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain right and left lungs) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea and thymus gland
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breath only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
periods of apnea followed by periods of dyspnea
dysphonia
horsness
epistaxis
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs (ptysis = to spit)
hypercapnia (note spelling)


hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood (capno=smoke; carbo=coal)
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia
hypoventilation
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder
condition blocking flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder
condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
rhinorrhea (nb: spelling)
thin, watery discharge from the nose
rhinomycosis (nb: spelling)
fungal infection of the nasal mucosis
muco
mucus
pus-
purulent
mucopurent
drainage of both mucus and pus
stenosis
narrowing

e.g. tracheostenosis = narrowing of the trachea
asthma (nb: spelling)
panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by PAROXYSMAL (SUDDEN, PERIODIC)attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele=imperfect)
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer
bronchiectasis (nb:spelling)
abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
laryngitis (nb:spelling)
inflammation of larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)

also know as "croup"
inflammation of the upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough
laryngospasm (nb: spelling)
spasm of laryngeal muscles causing constriction
pharyngitis (nb: spelling)
inflammation of the pharynx
coryza
head cold
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
heothorax
blood in pleural cavity
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumoheothorax
air and blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts
pulmonary embolism
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercules, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions
auscultation
to listen; a physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
-scopy
examination using a scope
endoscopy
examination of a body cavity with a flexible endoscope to examine within for diagnostic or treatment purpose
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine airways
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx (throat) to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, cancers
pertussis

also known as "whooping cough"
and acute infectious disease. Symptoms are; catarrh caused by inflammation of mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system; a perculiar paroxismal cough that ends in a "whoop"
bronchogram
x-ray film of bronchi
bronchography
recording of the bronchi
adenoidectomy
excision of adenoids
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
nasal polypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracoscopy
endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube
thoracotomy
incision into the chest
tonsillectomy
excision of palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T & A)
excision of tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea most often to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into trachea
antibiotic
a drug that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms
anticoagulant
drug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels (e.g. heparin)
antihistamine

histamine
a compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions, inflammation, etc. causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, dilation of blood vessels etc.
bronchodilator
a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant
a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing