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42 Cards in this Set

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900 AD Persian Rhazes
wrote textbook of medicine in the Middle Ages, Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur
1500 AD Indians of Mexico
had a pharmacology that included more than 1200 drugs
1500 Sarsaparilla Plant
popular in Europe for use on kidney and blader ailments - today found in teas
1580 AD Li Shi Zhen
completed the Pen Tsao Kang Mu - compilation of nearly 2000 drug for use in treating ilness and other conditions
1630 AD Jesuits use of Quinine
also called Jesuit powder - first drug to treat malaria
1000AD - Avicenna - Islamic physician
wrote a 5 volume encyclopedia - one devoted to natural medications and another to compounding drugs
1500AD - Paracelsus - Swiss alchemist
established use of cheistry to create medicinal drugs. First published recipe for the addicive drug laudanum
1721AD - Dr. Zabdiel Boylston
first westerner known to administer a smallpox vaccine
1785AD - British Physician William Withering
published study of the foxglove plant the drug it contained - digitalis - used in treating heart disease
1796 Edward Jenner
successfully used vaccine from the milder cowpox diease to inoculate against smallpox
1803 Frederich Serturner - German pharmacist
extracts morphine from opium
1846 - in Boston
furst publicized operatin using general anesthesia using ETHER
1899 - ASpirin
Acetylsalicylic acid -developed because of difficulties in using salicylic acid - drug from certain willow trees
1921 - Frederic Banting and Charles Best
show that an extract of the hormone, insulin, will lower blood sugar in dogs and may be useful to treat diabetes
1922 - James B. Collip
develops extract of insulin pure enough to test on humans
1957 - Albert Sabin
develops oral polio vaccine using weakened live virus taken orally rather than injected - only injectable for is used to inoculate chilren after Jan 2000 because of risk assoc w/ disease
1960 - birth control pill
first birth control pill
1981 - AIDS
first documented cases of AIDS
1987 - AZT
first drug approved by FDA for AIDs treatment
1864 - Louis Pasteur
showed that microorganisms cause food spoilage and that heat can kill them and preserve food. Principle of "germ theory"
1884 - Carl Koller
discovers that cocaine, active ingred. in cocoa leaves, was useful as local anesthetis in eye surgery and is established as 1st local anesthetic
1890 - Antitoxins
effective antitoxins are developed for diptheria and tetanus
1928 - Alexander Fleming
discovers fungus that produces chemical that kills bacteria - Penicillin - 1st antibiotic drug
1943 - Russell Marker
create hormone progesterone - 1st reliable birth control drug from species of Mexican yam
1951 - James Watson and Francis Crick
identify structure of DNA - basic component within the cell that contains the organism's genetic code
1955 - Dr. Jonas Salk
develops refined injectable polio vaccine from killed polio virus - in 1954 - polio had killed more than 13,000 and crippled more than 18,000 Americans
1988 - Human Genome Project
began w/ goal of mapping entire DNA sequence in human genome giving better understanding of hereditary diseases and new treatments for them
1989 - Amgen - biotechnology company
developed products based on advances in cellular and molecular biology - introduces 1st product - Epogen - anemia treatment for dialysis patients
1996 - HAART - Highly Active Anti-Retrovira Therapy
for AIDS treatment -mae of combo of 1 protease inhibitor and 2 antiretro-viral drugs - slows HIV process - 47% decrease in AIDS deaths in 1997
100 AD - Indian Physician Charaka
wrote the Charaka Samhita, 1st great book of Indian medicine - described over 500 herbal drugs
200 BC - Shen Nung Pen Tsao
1st official Chines "herbal" - lists 365 herbs for use in health treatment - early forerunner to FDA approved drug list
100 BC - King Mithridates of Pontos
practiced early form of immunization by taking small amounts of poison so he could build a tolerance to them. He developed the potion, Mithridaticum - promoted good health - used for 1500 yrs
77 BC - Dioscorides - Greek physician
wrote the De Materia Medica - 5 books that described over 600 plants and their healing properties - he described aspirin and how to get opium from poppies
162 AD - Greek physician Galen
greatest name in Western medicine - elieved there were 4 "humours" in man needing to be in balance for good health - he advocated "bleeding" to assist the balance. believed the Cornerstone for Western medicine - application of scientific approach to medicine and emphasis on education, observation and logic
4000 BC - Sumerians
studied stars and animal intestines to divine man's fate and physical condition
3000 BC - Egyptian Imhotep
priest and advisor to pharoahs - 1st physician known by name. Later named a demi-god and then a god:the Egyptian God of medicine
500 BC - Grek Alcmaeon
student of Pythagorus - saw diseases as result of loss of body's natural equilibrium rather than work of gods
3000 BC - Chinese Emperor Shen Nung
began tasting plants and other natural materials to determine which were poisonous and beneficial. One of 1st known practitioners of "trial and error" drug testing - established hundreds of herbal meds
1500 BC - Papyrus Ebers
most complete record of ancient Egyptian medicine and pharmacology. 1100 page scroll document - includes 800 prescriptions using 700 drugs - mostly derived from plants
600 BC - Aesculapius, the Greek god of Medicine
established centers where medicine was practiced. early clinics for training of Greek physicians
400 BC - Hippocrates
medical documents written by diff. greek physicians - Hippocratic oath - conduct of physicians - avoids supernatural and religious and that medicine is grounded in scientific reasoning and close observation of the patient
Greek Aesculapius
physician that could keep his patients from dying and even raise them from the dead - killed by Zeus with lightning bolt - then named him God of medicine - his daughter - Panacea - became goddess of medicinal herbs