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27 Cards in this Set

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What does the rough endoplasmic reticulum do?
An organelle that synthesizes proteins with help from the ribosomes on its surface.
What is the golgi apparatus?
Organelle responsible for modification and processing of proteins.
What are vesicles?
Transport vehicles for large or small molecules.
What are mitochondria?
The cells power plant, makes ATP.
What are the four stages of the cell cycle and what happens in each?
G1 phase- cell growth phase, larger cell
S phase- DNA replication (transcription) takes place
G2 phase-cell prepares for mitosis by making specialized proteins
M phase- cell divides into two cells
Define agonist
Drugs that bind to a receptor and give a response similar to the endogenous ligand.
Define antagonist
Drugs that bind to a receptor and do not give a response
Define placebo
Name given to a sugar pill, but which can result in typical drug responses (placebo effect)
Define paracrine signaling
cell to cell signaling that is between cells which are close in proximity
Define hydrogen bond
An electrostatic attraction between two non hydrogen atoms, one of which bears a hydrogen and where the distance between the non hydrogen atoms is less than or equal to their atomic radii.
Define enzyme
A protein (or RNA) molecule that makes or breaks chemical bonds in a catalytic fashion (faster than in absence of enzyme.
Define protein tertiary structure
The organization in 3D space of secondary structure to form a folded protein
Define secondary structure
The localized ordered structure of a peptide chain. Alpha helices, beta turns, beta strands
Define secondary messanger
A signal resulting from another signal usually intracellular and amplified
What are four important feature when a small molecule binds to a target?
Shape
Structure
Elecrostatic
Hydrophobic
What is the most reasonable description to express the transformation that occurs during the zipper binding mechanism between a drug and protein?
A change in shape of the drug when binding to the protein.
Emil Fischer was the first to propose the theory of drug action that describes how the size and shape of a molecule can influence its biological activity. The theory was described as...
The lock and key theory
The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) often undergo a conformational change after binding a ligand. This conformational change is required for activation of the receptor and transmission of the signal from outside the cell to inside the cell. This binding interaction and corresponding change in the receptor conformation is called...
ligand-induced conformational change theory
The study of biochemical pathways is complicated by the fact that they often intertwine with one another and are subject to many regulating processes. One common regulatory process in a biochemical pathway is called a...
Feedback mechanism
Multiple forms (different 3 -dimensional arrangements of the atoms) for the same
element are called
Allotropes
When two water molecules form a hydrogen bond the _________ of the interaction is favorable while the _____________of the interaction is unfavorable. These two terms describe the energy change.
Enthalpy and Entropy
What is the primary structure of a protein?
The linear amino acid sequence.
Describe the bond which connects amino acids together.
A peptide or amide bond. A nitrogen connected to a carbonyl. Makes planar bond segments. Creates double bond character in the C-N bond.
What are the different interactions involved in making a beta sheet?
Polar interactions, hydrophobic interactions and ionic interactions
Describe a protein folding in water.
The protein will fold so that the hydrophilic pieces will be on the outside and the hydrophobic pieces on the inside of the protein.
Is there only one route for a protein to fold and get to its native conformation?
No, there can be many possibilities of folding to get to the same end product.
What are prions and how to they create disease?
Rogue protein conformations that are not functional.