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450 Cards in this Set

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agglutination
agglutinat = clumping
-ion = process

the process of clumping together, as of blood cells that are incompatible
albumin
one of a group of simple proteins found in blood plasma and serum
allergy
all = other
-ergy = work

individual hypersensitivity to a substance that is usually harmless
anaphylaxis
ana = up
-phylaxis = protection

an unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign proteins or other substances
anemia
an = lack of
-emia = blood condition

a condition of a lack of red blood cells
anisocytosis
anis/o = unequal
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of

a condition in which the erythrocytes are unequal in size and shape
antibody
anti = against
-body = body

a protein substance produced in the body in response to an invading foreign substance
anticoagulant
anti = against
coagui = clots
-ant = forming

an agent that works against the formation of blood clots
antigen
anti = against
-gen = formation, produce

an invading foreign substance that induces the formation of antibodies
autoimune disease
a condition in which the body's immune system becomes defective and produces antibodies against itself
autotransfusion
auto = self
trans = across
fus = to pour
-ion = process

the process of reinfusing a patients own blood. methods used are "harvesting" the blood 1 to 3 weeks before elective surgery; "salvaging" intraoperative blood; and collecting blood from trauma or selected surgical patients for reinfusion within 4 hours
basocyte
bas/o = base
-cyte = cell

a base cell leukocyte
basophil
bas/o = base
-phil = attraction

a cell that has an attraction for a base dye
blood
the fluid that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
coagulable
coagul = to clot
-able = capable

capable of forming a clot
corpuscle
a blood cell
creatinemia
creatin = flesh, creatine
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excess creatine in the blood
embolus
a blood clot carried in the bloodstream
eosinophil
eosin/o = rose-colored
-phil = attraction

a cell that stains readily with the acid stain; attraction for the rose-colored stain
erythroblast
erythr/o = red
-blast = immature cell, germ cell

an immature red blood cell
erythrocyte
erythr/o = red
-cyte = cell

a red blood cell
erythrocytosis
erythr/o = red
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of
erythropoiesis
erythr/o = red
-poiesis = formation

formation of red blood cells
erythropoietin
erythr/o = red
poiet = formation
-in = chemical

a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells
extravasation
extra = beyond
vas(at) = vessel
-ion = process

the process whereby fluids and/or medications (IVs) escape into surrounding tissue
fibrin
fibr = fiber
-in = chemical

an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
fibrinogen
fibrin/o = fiber
-gen = formation

a blood protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
globullin
globul = globe
-in = chemical

an albuminous protein found in body fluids and cells
granulocyte
granul/o = little grain, granular
-cyte = cell

a granular leukocyte
hematocrit
hemat/o = blood
-crit = to separate

a blood test that separates solids from plasma in the blood by centrifuging the blood sample
corpuscle
a blood cell
creatinemia
creatin = flesh, creatine
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excess creatine in the blood
embolus
a blood clot carried in the bloodstream
eosinophil
eosin/o = rose-colored
-phil = attraction

a cell that stains readily with the acid stain; attraction for the rose-colored stain
erythroblast
erythr/o = red
-blast = immature cell, germ cell

an immature red blood cell
erythrocyte
erythr/o = red
-cyte = cell

a red blood cell
erythrocytosis
erythr/o = red
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of
erythropoiesis
erythr/o = red
-poiesis = formation

formation of red blood cells
erythropoietin
erythr/o = red
poiet = formation
-in = chemical

a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells
extravasation
extra = beyond
vas(at) = vessel
-ion = process

the process whereby fluids and/or medications (IVs) escape into surrounding tissue
fibrin
fibr = fiber
-in = chemical

an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
fibrinogen
fibrin/o = fiber
-gen = formation

a blood protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
globullin
globul = globe
-in = chemical

an albuminous protein found in body fluids and cells
granulocyte
granul/o = little grain, granular
-cyte = cell

a granular leukocyte
hematocrit
hemat/o = blood
-crit = to separate

a blood test that separates solids from plasma in the blood by centrifuging the blood sample
hematologist
hemat/o = blood
log = study of
-ist = one who specializes

one who specializes in the study of the blood
hematology
hemat/o = blood
-logy = study

the study of the blood
hematoma
hemat = blood
-oma = tumor

a blood tumor
hemochromatosis
hem/o = blood
chromat = color
-osis = condition of

a disease condition in which iron is not metabolized properly and it accumulates in body tissues. the skin has a bronze hue, the liver becomes enlarged, and diabetes and cardiac failure may occur.
hemoglobin
hem/o = blood
-globin = globe, protein

blood protein; the iron-containing pigment of red blood cells
hemolysis
hem/o = blood
-lysis = destruction

destruction of red blood cells
hemophilia
hem/o = blood
-philia = attraction

a hereditary blood disease characterized by prolonged coagulation and tendency to bleed
hemorrhage
hem/o = blood
-rrhage = bursting forth

excessive bleeding; bursting forth of blood
hemostasis
hem/o = blood
-stasis = control, stopping

the control or stopping of bleeding
heparin
a substance found in the liver, lungs, and other body tissues that inhibits blood clotting
hypercalcemia
hyper = excessive
calc = lime, calcium
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excessive amounts of calcium in the blood
hyperglycemia
hyper = excessive
glyc = sweet, sugar
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excessive amounts of sugar in the blood
hyperlipemia
hyper = excessive
lip = fat
-emia = blood condition

a condition of excessive amounts of fat in the blood
hypoglycemia
hypo = deficient
glyc = sweet, sugar
-emia = blood condition

a condition of deficient amounts of sugar in the blood
immunoglobulin (lg)
immun/o = immunity
globul = globe
-in = chemical

a blood protein capable of acting as an antibody. five types are IgA, IgD, IgE, IgC, and IgM
Kaposi's sarcoma
a malignant neoplasm that causes violaceous cascular lesions and general lymphadenopathy; it is the most common AIDS-related tumor.
leukapheresis
leuk/a = white
-pheresis = removal

removal of white blood cells from the circulation
leukemia
leuk = white
-emia = blood condition

a disease of the blood characterized by overproduction of leukocytes
leukocyte
leuk/o = white
-cyte = cell

a white blood cell
leukocytopenia
leuk/o = white
cyt/o = cell
-penia = lack of
lymph
a clear, colorless, alkaline fluid found in the lymphatic vessels
lymphadenitis
lymph = lymph
aden = gland
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the lymph gland
lymphadenotomy
lymph = lymph
aden/o = gland
-tomy = incision

incision into a lymph gland
lymphangiology
lymph = lymph
angi/o = vessel
-logy = study of

the study of the lymphatic vessels
lymphangitis
lymph = lymph
ang = vessel
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of lymphatic vessels
lymphedema
lymph = lymph
-edema = swelling

an abnormal accumulation of lymph in the interstitial spaces
lymphoma
lymph = lymph
-oma = tumor

a lymphoid neoplasm, usually malignant
lymphostasis
lymph/o = lymph
-stasis = control, stopping

the control or stopping of the flow of lymph
macrocyte
macr/o = large
-cyte = cell

an abnormally large erythrocyte
monocyte
mone = one
-cyte = cell

the largest leukocyte, which has one nucleus
mononucleosis
mono = one
nucle = kernel, nucleus
-osis = condition

a condition of excessive amounts of mononuclear leukocytes in the blood
neutrophil
neutr/o = neither
-phil = attraction

a leukocyte that stains with neutral dyes
opportunistic infection
a protozoal, fungal, viral, or bacterial infection that occurs when one's immune system is compromised (AIDS patients)
pancytopenia
pan = all
cyt/o = cell
-penia = lack of

a lack of the cellular elements of the blood
phagocytosis
phag/o = eat, engulf
cyt = cell
-osis = condition of

a condition of the engulfing and eating of bacteria by the phagocytes
plasma
the fluid part of the blood
plamapheresis
plasma = a thing formed, plasma
-pheresis = removal
polycythemia
poly = many
cyth = cell
-emia = blood condition

a condition of too many red blood cells
prothrombin
pro = before
thromb = clot
-in = chemical

a chemical substance that interacts with calcium salts to produce thrombin
radioimmunoassay
a method of determining the concentration of protein-bound hormones in the blond plasma
reticulocyte
reticul/o = net
-cyte = cell

a red blood cell containing a network of granules
septicemia
septic = putrefying
-emia = blood condition

a condition in which pathogenic bacteria are present in the blood
seroculture
ser/o = whey, serum
-culture = cultivation

a bacterial culture of blood serum
serum
ser(a) = whey
-um = tissue

the clear, yellowish fluid that separates from the clot when blood clots
sideropenia
sider/o = iron
-penia = lack of

lack of iron in the blood
sideropenia
sider/o = iron
-penia = lack of

lack of iron in the blood
splenomegaly
splen/o = spleen
-megaly = enlargement

enlargement of the spleen
stem cell
a cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to various types of blood cells
thalassemia
thalass = sea
-emia = blood condition

hereditary anemias occuring in the population bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in SE Asia
thrombectomy
thromb = clot
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a blood clot
thrombin
thromb = clot
-in = chemical

a blood enzyme that causes clotting by forming fibrin
thrombocyte
thromb/o = clot
-cyte = cell

a clotting cell; a blood platelet
thromboplastin
thromb = clot
plast = a developing
-in = chemical

an essential factor in the production of thrombin and blood clotting
thrombosis
thromb = clot
-osis = condition of

condition of a blood clot
thymoma
thym = thymis
-oma = tumor

a tumor of the thymus
tonsillectomy
tonsill = tonsil
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the tonsil
transfusion
trans = across
fus = to pour
-ion = process

the process whereby blood is transferred from one individual to the vein of another
vasculitis
vascul = small vessel
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of a lymph or blood vessel
alveolus
alveol = small, hollow air sac
-us = pertaining to

pertaining to a small air sac in the lungs
anthracosis
anthrac = coal
-osis = condition of

black lung, a lung condition caused by inhalation of coal dust and silica
aphasia
a = lack of
phas = speech
-ia = condition

absense of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of brain dysfunction
apnea
a = lack of
-pnea = breathing

temporary cessation of breathing
asphyxia
a = lack of
sphyx = pulse
-ia = condition

a condition in which there is a depletion of oxygen in the blood with an increase of carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues
aspiration
apirat = to draw in
-ion = process

the process of drawing in or out by suction; foreign bodies may be aspirated into the nose, throat, or lungs on inspiration
asthma
a disease of the bronchi characterized by wheezing, dyspnea, and a feeling of constriction in the chest
atelectasis
atel = imperfect
-ectasis = dilation, expansion

a condition of imperfect dilation of the lungs; the collapse of an alveolus, a lobule, or a larger lung unit
bronchiectasis
bronch/i = bronchi
-ectasis = dilation, expansion

chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with a secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of a lung
bronchiolitis
bronchiol = bronchiole
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bronchioles
bronchitis
bronch = bronchi
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bronchi
bronchoscope
bronch/o = bronchi
-scope = instrument

an instrument used to examine the bronchi
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a rhythemic cycle of breathing with a gradual increase in respiration followed by apnea, then a repeat of the same cycle
cough
sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs
croup
an acute respiratory disease characterized by obstruction of the larynx, a barking cough, dyspnea, hoarseness, and stridor
cyanosis
cyan = dark blue
-osis = condition of

a dark blue condition of the skin and mucous membrane caused by oxygen deficiency
cystic fibrosis
cyst = sac
-ic = pertaining to
fibr = fiber
-osis = condition of

an inherited disease that affects the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands.
diaphragmatocele
dia = through
phragmat/o = partition
-cele = hernia

a hernia of the diaphragm
dysphonia
dys = difficult
phon = voice
-ia = condition

a condition of difficulty in speaking
dyspnea
dys = difficult
-pnea = breathing

difficulty in breathing
emphysema
a chronic pulmonary disease in which the bronchioles become obstructed with mucus
empyema
pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity
endotracheal
endo = within
trach/e = trachea
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to within the trachea
epistaxis
epi = upon
-staxis = dripping

nosebleed; usually from traumatic or spontaneous rupture of blood vessels in the mucous membranes of the nose
eupnea
eu = good, normal
-pnea = breathing

good or normal breathing
exhalation
ex = out
halat = breathe
-ion = process

the process of breathing out
expectoration
ex = out
pectorat = breast
-ion = process

the process by which saliva, mucous, or phlegm is expelled from the air passages
Hemilich maneuver
a technique for removing a foreign body that is blocking the trachea
hemoptysis
hem/o = blood
-ptysis = to spit

the spitting up of blood
hyperpnea
hyper = excessive
-pnea = breathing

excessive or rapid breathing
hyperventilation
hyper = excessive
ventilat = to air
-ion = process

the process of excessive ventilating, thereby increasing the air in the lungs beyond the normal limit
hypoxia
hyp = below, deficient
ox = oxygen
-ia = condition

a condition of deficient amounts of oxygen in the inspired air
influenza
an acute, contagious respiratory infection caused by a virus. onset is usually sudden, and symptoms are fever, chills, headache, myalgia, cough, and sore throat.
inhalation
in = in
halat = breathe
-ion = process

the process of breathing in
laryngeal
laryng/e = larynx
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the larynx
laryngitis
laygn = larynx
-itis = inflammation
laryngoscope
laryng/o = larynx
-scope = instrument

an instrument used to examine the larynx
Legionnaires' disease
a severe pulmonary pneumonia
lobectomy
lob = lobe
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a lobe of any organ or gland, such as the lung
mesothelioma
mes/o = middle
thel/i = nipple
-oma = tumor

a malignant tumor of mesothelium (serious membrane of the pleura) caused by the inhalation of asbestos
nasopharyngitis
nas/o = nose
pharyng = pharynx
-itis = inflammation
olfaction
olfact = smell
-ion = process

the process of smelling
oropharynx
or/o = mouth
pharynx = pharynx

the central portion of the throat that lies between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis
orthopnea
orth/o = straight
-pnea = breathing

inability to breathe unless in an upright or straight position
palatopharyngoplasty
palat/o = palate
pharyng/o = pharynx
-plasty = surgical repair

a type of surgery that relieves snoring and sleeping apnea by removing the uvula and the tonsils and reshaping the lining at the back of the throat to enlarge that air passageway
pertussis
an acute, infectious disease characterized by cough; also called whooping cough
pharyngitis
pharyng = pharynx
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the pharynx
pleurisy
inflammation of the pieura caused by injury, infection, or a tumor
pleuritis
pleur = pleura
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the pleura
pleurodynia
pleur/o = pleura
-dynia = pain

pain in the pleura
pneumoconiosis
pneum/o = lung
con/i = dust
-osis = condition of

a condition of the lung caused by the inhalation of dust
pneumonia
pneumon = lung
-ia = condition

inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants
pneumonitis
pneumon = lung
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax
pneumo/o = air
thorax = chest

a collection of air in the chest cavity
polyp
a tumor with a stem, may occur where there are mucous membranes, such as the nose, ears, mouth, uterus, and intestine
pulmonectomy
pulmon = lung
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the lung or a part of a lung
pyothorax
py/o = pus
thorax = chest

pus in the chest cavity
rale
an abnormal sound heard on auscultaion of the chest; a crackling, rattling, or bubbling sound
respirator
respirat = breathing
-or = a doer

a type of machine used for prolonged artificial respiration
respiratory distress syndrome
(hyaline membrane disease)
a condition that may occur in a premature infant in which the lungs are not matured to the point of manufacturing lecithin, a pulmonary surfactant. results in collapse of alveoli, which leads to cyanosis and hypoxia.
rhinoplasty
rhin/o = nose
plasty = surgical repair

surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhea
rhin/o = nose
-rrhea = flow, discharge
rhinovirus
rhin/o = nose
vir = virus
-us = pertaining to

one of a subgroup of virused that causes the common cold (coryza) in humans
rhonchus
rhonch = snore
-us = pertaining to

a rale or rattling sound in the throat or bronchial tubes caused by a partial obstruction
sarcoidosis
sarc = flesh
-ois = resemble
-osis = condition of

a chronic granulomatous condition that may involve almost any organ system of the body. the lungs are usually involved and this causes dyspnea on exertion.
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
a contagious respiratory infection. a serious form of pneumonia
sinusitis
sinus = a curve, hollow
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of a sinus
spirometer
spri/o = breath
-meter = instrument to measure

an instrument used to measure the volume of respired air
sputum
substance coughed up from lungs; may be watery, thick, purulent, clear, or bloody and may contain microorganisms
stridor
a high-pitched sound caused by obstruction of the air passageway
tachypnea
tachy = fast
-pnea = breathing

fast breathing
thoraconcentesis
thorac/o = chest
-centesis = surgical puncture

surgical puncture of the chest for removal of fluid
thoracoplasty
thorac/o = chest
-plasty = surgical repair

surgical repair of the chest
thoraectomy
thorac/o = chest
-tomy = incision

incision of the chest
tonsillectomy
tonsil = almond, tonsil
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the tonsils
tonsillitis
tonsil = almond, tonsil
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the tonsils
tracheal
trach/e = trachea
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the trachea
trachealgia
teach/e = trachea
-algia = pain

pain in the trachea
tracheolaryngotomy
trache/o = trachea
laryng/o = larynx
-tomy = incision

incision into the larynx and trachea
tracheostomy
trache/o = trachea
-stomy = new opening

new opening into the trachea
tuberculosis
tubercul = a little swelling
-osis = condition of

an infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus
wheeze
a whistling sound caused by obstruction of air passageway
albuminuria
albumin = protein
-uria = urine

presence of serum protein in the urine
antidiuretic
anti = against
di(a) = through
uret = urine
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to a medication that decreases urine secretion
anuria
an = without
-uria = urine

without the formation of urine
bacteriuria
bacter/i = bacteria
uria = urine

presence of bateria in urine
calciuria
calc/i = calcium
-uria = urine

presence of calcium in urine
calculus
a pebble, any abnormal concretion (stone)
catheter
a tube of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal, or plastic that is inserted into a body cavity to remove fluid or to inject fluid
cystectomy
cyst = bladder
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the bladder of part of the bladder
cystitis
cyst = bladder
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bladder
cystocele
cyst/o = bladder
-cele = hernia

hernia of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina
cystodynia
cyst/o = bladder
-dynia = pain

pain in the bladder
cystogram
cyst/o = bladder
-gram = a mark, record

an x-ray record of the bladder
cystolithectomy
cyst/o = bladder
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a stone from the bladder
cystoscope
cyst/o = bladder
-scope = instrument

an instrument used for examination of the bladder
dialysis
dia = through
-lysis = destruction, to separate

a procedure to separate waste material from the blood and to maintain fluis, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in impaired kidney function or in the absence of the kidney
diuresis
di(a) = through
ure = urinate
-sis = condition

condition of increased or excessive flow of urine
dysuria
dys = difficult, painful
-uria = urine

difficult or painful urinati
edema
an abnormal condition in which the vody tissues contain an accumlation of fluid
enuresis
a condition of involuntary emission of urine; bedwetting
excretory
excret = sifted out
-ory = like, resemble

pertaining to elimination of waste products from body
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotriptor
extra = outside of
corpor/e = body
-al = pertaining to

a device used to crush kidney stones. patient is sedated and immersed in a water bath while shock waves pound the stones and they crumble into small pieces. the pieces are flushed out with urine.
glomerular
glomerul = glomerulus, little ball
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the glomerulus
glomerulitis
glomerul = glomerulus, little ball
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the renal glomeruli
glomerulonephritis
glomerul = glomerulus, little ball
nephr = kidney
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the kidney involving primarily the glomeruli
glycosuria
glycos = sweet, sugar
-uria = urine

presence of glucose in the urine
hematuria
hemat = blood
-uria = urine

presence of blood in the urine
hemodialysis
hem/o = blood
dia = through
-lysis = to separate

the use od an artifical kidney to separate waste from the blood. the blood is circulated through tubes made of semipermeable membranes, and these tubes are continually bathed by solutions that remove waste.
hydronephrosis
hydro = water
nephr = kidney
-osis = condition of

a condition in which urine collects in the renal pelvis because of an obstructed outflow.
hypercalciuria
hyper = excessive
calci = calcium
-uria = urine

an excessive amount of calcium in the urine
incontinence
in = not
continence = to hold

the inability to hold urine
interstitial cystits
a chronically irritable and painful inflammation of the bladder wall
ketonuria
keton = ketone
-uria = urine

presence of ketones in the urine
lithotripsy
lith/o = stone
-tripsy = crushing

the crushing of a kidney stone
meatotomy
meat/o = passage
-tomy

incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening
meatus
an opening or passage; the external opening of the urethra
micturition
micturit = to urinate
-ion = process

the process of urination
nephrectomy
nephr = kidney
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a kidney
nephritis
nephr = kidney
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the kidney
nephrocystitis
nephr/o = kidney
cyst = bladder
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bladder and the kidney
nephrolith
nephr/o = kidney
-lith = stone, calculus

kidney stone, calculus
nephrology
nephr/o = kidney
-logy = study of

study of the kidney
nephroma
nephr = kidney
-oma = tumor

kidney tumor
nephron
stuctural and functional unit of the kidney
nephropathy
nephr/o = kidney
-pathy = disease

disease of the kidney
nephrosclerosis
nephr/o = kidney
scler = hardening
-osis = condition of

a condition of hardening of the kidney
nocturia
noct = night
-uria = urine

excessive urination during the night
oliguria
olig = scanty
-uria = urine

scanty urination
percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy
per = through
cutan/e = skin
-ous = pertaining to
ultra = beyond
son = sound
-ic = pertaining to
lith/o = stone
-tripsy = crushing

the crushing of a kidney stone by using ultrasound. this is an invasive surgical procedure performed by using a nephroscope or fluoroscopy.
peritoneal dialysis
periton/e = peritoneum
-al = pertaing to
dia = through
-lysis = to separate

separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis. fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity, and wastes from the blood pass into this fluid. the fluid and waste are then removed from the body.
periurethral
peri = around
urethr = urethra
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to around the urethra
polyuria
poly = excessive
-uria = urine

excessive urination
pyelocystitis
pyel/o = renal pelvis
cyst = bladder
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the bladder and renal pelvis
pyelolithotomy
pyel/o = renal pelvis
lith/o = stone
-tomy = incision

surgical incision into the renal pelvis for removal of a stone
pyelonephritis
pyel/o = renal pelvis
nephr = kidney
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
pyuria
py = pus
-uria = urine

pus in the urine
renal
ren = kidney
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the kidney
renal colic
an acute pain that occurs in the kidney area and is caused by blockage during the passage of a stone
renal failure
cessation of proper functioning of the kidney
renal transplant
surgical procedure to implant a donor kidney to a recipient
renin
an enzyme produced by the kidney
residual urine
urine that is left in the bladder after urination
sediment
substance that settles at the bottom of a liquid; a precipitate
specific gravity
weight of a substance compared with an equal amount of water
specimen
sample of tissue, blood, urine, or other material intended to show the nature of the whole
sterile
state of being free from living microorganisms; asepsis
stricture
strict = to draw, to bind
-ure = process

an abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage such as the esophagus, ureterm or urethra
trigonitis
trigon = trigone
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the trigone of the bladder
urea
chief nitrogenous constituent of urine
uremia
ur = urine
-emia = blood condition

condition of excess urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood
ureterocolostomy
ureter/o = ureter
col/o = colon
-stomy = new opening

surgical implantation of the ureter into the colon
ureteropathy
ureter/o = ureter
-pathy = disease

disease of the ureter
ureteroplasty
ureter/o = ureter
-plasty = surgical repair

surgical repair of the ureter
urethralgia
urethr/o = urethra
-algia = pain

pain in the urethra
urethral stricture
urethr/o = urethra
-al = pertaining to
strict = to draw, to bind

a narrowing or constriction of the urethra
urethroperineal
urethr/o = urethra
perine = perineum
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the urethra and perineum
urgency
sudden need to void, urinate
uric acid
an end product of purine metabolism; a common component of urinary and renal stones
urinal
urin = urine
-al = pertaining to

a container, toilet, or bathroom fixture into which one urinates
urinalysis
urin = urine
a = apart
-lysis = destruction, to separate

analysis of the urine; a separating of the urine for examination to determine the presence of abnormal elements
urination
urinat = urine
-ion = process

process of voiding urine
urine
waste product of fluid and dissolved substances secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and excreted through the urethra
urinometer
urin/o = urine
-meter = instument, to measure

an instrument used to measure the specific gravity of urine
urobilin
ur/o = urine
bil = bile
-in = chemical

brown pigment formed by the oxidation of urobilinogen; may be formed in the urine after exposure to air
urochrome
pigment that gives urine the normal yellow color
urologist
ur/o = urine
log = study of
-ist = one who specializes

one who specializes in the study of the urinary system
urology
ur/o = urine
-logy = study of

study of the urinary system
void
empty the bladder
acidosis
acid = acid
-osis = condition of

condition of excessive acidity of body fluids
acromegaly
acr/o = extremity
-megaly = enlargement, large

chronic disease marked by enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive growth hormone
Addison's disease
results from a deficiency in the secretion of adrenocortical hormones
adenectomy
aden = gland
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a gland
adenoma
aden = gland
-oma = tumor

tumor of a gland
adenosis
aden = gland
-osis = condition of

any disease condition of a gland
adrenal
ad = toward
ren = kidney
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to toward the kidney
adrenalectomy
ad = toward
ren = kidney
-al = pertaining to
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the adrenal gland
adrenopathy
ad = toward
ren/o = kidney
-pathy = disease

any disease of the adrenal gland
aldosterone
a mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that helps regulate metabolism of sodium, chloride, and potassium
androgen
andr/o = man
-gen = formation, produce

hormones that produce or stimulate the development of male characteristics. the two major androgens are testosterone and androsterone.
catecholamines
biochemical substances, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
cortisone
cortis = cortex
-one = hormone

glucocorticoid hormone that is isolated from the adrenal cortex; used as anti-inflammatory agent
cretinism
cretin = cretin
-ism = condition of

congential deficiency in secretion of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4
Cushing's disease
results from hypersecretion of cortisol. symptoms include fatigue, muscular weakness, and changes in body appearance.
diabetes
dia = through
-betes = to go

a disease characterized by excessive discharge of urine
dopamine
intermediate substance in the synthesis of norepinephrine; used in the treatment of shock as it acts to elevate blood pressure and increase urinary output.
dwarfism
dwarf = small
-ism = condition of

condition of being abnormally small
endocrine
endo = within
crine = to secrete

ductless gland that produces an internal secretion
endocrinologist
endo = within
crin/o = to secrete
log = study of
-ist = one who specializes

one who specializes in the study of the endocrine system
endocrinology
endo = within
crin/o = to secrete
-logy = study of

study of the endocrine system
epinephrine
epi = upon
nephr = kidney
-ine = pertaining to

hormone produced by the adrenal medulla; used as a vasoconstrictor, as a cardiac stimulant, to relax bronchospasm, and to relieve allergic symptoms; also called adrenaline
estrogen
estr/o = mad desire
-gen = formation, produce

hormone produces by ovaries, including estradiol, estrone, and estiol; female sex hormones important in the development of secondary sex characteristics and regulation of the menstual cycle
euthyroid
eu = good, normal
thry = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble

normal activty of the thyroid gland
exocrine
exo = out, away from
crine = to secrete

external secretion of a gland
exophthalmic
ex = out, away from
ophthaim = eye
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to an abnormal protrusion of the eye
galactorrhea
galact/o = milk
-rrhea = flow, discharge

excessive secretion of milk after cessation of nursing
gigantism
gigant = giant
-ism = condition of

condition of being abnormally large
glandular
glandul = little acorn
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to a gland
glucocorticoid
gluc/o = sweet, sugar
cortic = cortex
-oid = resemble

general classification of the adrenal cortical hormones
hirsutism
hirsut = hairy
-ism = condition of

adnormal condition characterized by excessive growth of hair, especially in women
hormone
chemical substance produced by the endocrine glands
hydrocortisone
hydro = water
cortis = cortex
-one = hormone

glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex; used as an anti-inflammatory agent
hypergonadism
hyper = excessive
gonad = seed
-ism = condition of

condition of excessive secretion of the sex glands
hyperinsulinism
hyper = excessive
insulin = insulin
-ism = condition of

condition of excessive amounts of insulin in the blood
hyperkalemia
hyper = excessive
kal = potassium (K)
-emia = blood condition

condition of excessive amounts of potassium in the blood
hyperthyroidism
hyper = excessive
thyr = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble
-ism = condition of

condition caused by excessive secretion of the thyroid gland
hypogonadism
hypo = deficient
gonad = seed
-ism = condition of

condition caused by deficient internal secretion of the gonads
hypoparathyroidism
hypo = deficient
para = beside
thyr = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble
-ism = condition of

deficient internal secretion of the parathyroid glands
hypophysis
hypo = deficient, under
-physis = growth

any undergrowth; pituitary body
hypothyroidism
hypo = deficient
thyr = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble
-ism = condition of

deficient secretion of the thyroid gland
insulin
insul = insulin, island
-in = chemical

hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas; essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats; used in management of diabetes mellitus
insulinogenic
insulin/o = insulin, island
-genic = formation, produce

formation or production of insulin
iodine
trace mineral that aids in the development and functioning of the thyroid gland
lethargic
letharg = drowsiness
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to drowsiness, sluggish
myxedema
myx = mucus
-edema = swelling

condition of mucus swelling resulting from hypofunction of the thyroid gland
norepinephrine
nor = not
epi = upon
nephr = kidney
-ine = pertaining to

hormone produced by the adrenal medulla; used as a vasoconstrictor of peripheral blood vessels in acute hypotensive states
oxytocin
hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates uterine contraction during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk during nursing
pancreatic
pan = all
creat = flesh
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to the pancreas
parathyroid
para = beside
thyr = thyroid, sheild
-oid = resemble

an endocrine gland located beside the thyroid gland
pineal
pine = pine cone
-al = pertaining to

endocrine gland that is shaped like a small pine cone
pituitarism
pituitar = phlegm
-ism = condition

any condition of the pituitary gland
pituitary
pituitar = phlegm
-y = pertaining to

pertaining to phlegm; the pituitary body or gland, the hypophysis
progeria
pro = before
ger = old age
-ia = condition

condition of premature old age occuring in childhood
progesterone
pro = before
gester = to bear
-one = hormone

hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary, the adrenal cortex, or the placenta; released during the second half of the menstrual cycle
somatotropin
somat/o = body
trop = turn
-in = chemical

growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
steroids
ster = solid
-oid = resemble

a group of chemical substances that includes hormones, vitamines, sterols, cardiac glycosides, and certain drugs
testosterone
test/o = testicle
ster = solid
-one = hormone

hormone produced by the testes; male sex hormone important in the development of secondary sex characteristics and masculinization
thymectomy
thym = thymus
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the thymus gland
thymitis
thym = thymus
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the thymus gland
thyroid
thyr = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble

resembling a shield, one of the endocrine glands
thyroidectomy
thyr = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of the thyroid gland
thyroiditis
thyr = thyroid, shield
-oid = resemble
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the thyroid gland
thyrotoxicosis
thry/o = thyroid, shield
toxic = poison
-osis = condition of

poisonous condition of the thyroid gland caused by hyperactivity
thyroxine
thyro = thyroid, shield
-ine = pertaining to

hormone produced by the thyroid gland; important in growth and development and regulation of the body's metabolic rate and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
vasopressin
vas/o = vessel
press = to press
-in = chemical

hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; also called antidiuretic hormone ADH
virilism
viril = masculine
-ism = condition of

condition of masculinity developed in a women
acetylcholine (ACh)
cholinergic neurotransmitter that occurs in various tissues and organs of the body. it is though to play an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses and myoneural junctions.
acrophobia
acr/o = extremity
-phobia = fear

abnormal fear of high places
agoraphobia
agor/a = marketplace
-phobia = fear

abnormal fear of being alone in public places; an anxiety syndrome and panic disorder
akathesia
the inability to remain still, motor, restlessness, and anxiety
akinesia
a = lack of
-kinesia = motion

a loss or lack of the power of voluntary motion
Alzheimer's disease
severe form of senile dementia that may be due to some defect in the neurotransmitter system. there is cortical destruction that causes variable degrees of confusion, memory loss, and other cognitive defects
amnesia
a = lack of
mnea = memory
-ia = condition

condition in which there is a loss or lack of memory
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
a = not
my/o = muscle
-troph(y) = development
-ic = pertaining to
later = side
-al = pertaining to
scler = hardening
-osis = condition of

muscular weakness, atrophy, with, spasticity caused by degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cor, medulla, and cortex
analgesia
an = lack of
-algesia = pain

lack of sense of pain
anencephaly
an = lack of
encephal = brain
-y = condition

congenital condition in which there is a lack of development of the brain
anesthesia
an = lack of
-esthesia = feeling

a loss or lack of the sense of feeling
anesthesiologist
an = lack of
esthesi/o = feeling
log = study of
-ist = one who specializes

physician who specializes in the science of anesthesia
aphagia
a = lack of
-phagia = to eat

a loss or lack of the ability to eat or swallow
aphasia
a = lack of
-phasia = to speak

loss or lack of the ability to speak
apoplexy
sudden loss of consciousness caused by an embolus, a thrombus, or rupture of an artery in the brain; stroke
apraxia
a = lack of
-praxia = action

loss or lack of the ability to use objects properly
asthenia
a = lack of
-sthenia = strength

loss or lack of strength
astrocyte
astro = star-shaped
-cyte = cell

star-shaped neuroglial cell with many branching processes
astrocytoma
astro = star-shaped
cyt = cell
-oma = tumor

tumor composed of astrocytes
ataxia
a = lack of
-taxia = order

loss or lack of muscular coordination
atelomyelia
atel/o = imperfect
myel = spinal cord
-ia = condition of

condition of imperfect development of the spinal cord
autism
aut = self
-ism = condition of

mental disorder in which the individual is self-absorbed, inaccessible, and unable to relate to others and has language disturbances. syndrome usually beginning in infancy and becoming apparent in the first or second year of life.
bradykinesia
brady = slow
-kinesia = motion

an abnormal slowness of motion
cephalalgia
cephal = head
-algia = pain

head pain; headache
cerebellar
cerebell = little brain
-ar = pertaining to

pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebellospinal
cerebell/o = little brain
spin = a thorn, spine
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the cerebellum and spinal cord
cerebrospinal
cerbr/o = cerebrum
spin = a thorn, spine
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to the cerebrum and the spinal cord
chorea
condition of rapid, jerky involuntary muscular movements of the limbs or face
coma
an unconscious state or stupor from which the patient cannot be around
concussion (brain)
concuss = shaken violently
-ion = process

loss of consciousness, temporary or prolonged, caused by a blow to the head
craniectomy
cran/i = skull
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a portion of the skull
craniotomy
crani/o = skull
-tomy = incision
deep brain stimulation
technique used to stop uncontrollable movements in Parkinson's disease. electrodes are implanted in the thalamus or globus pallidus of the brain and connected to a pacemaker -like device, which the patient can switch on or off as symptoms dictate.
delirium
a state of mental confusion marked by illusions, hallucinations, excitement, restlessness, delusion, and speech incoherence
dementia
de = down
ment = mind
-ia = condition of

refers to a group of symptoms marked my memory loss and other cognitive functions
diskectomy
disk = a disk
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of an intervertebral disk
dyslexia
dys = difficult
lexia = diction

condition in which an individual has difficulty in comprehending written language
dysphasia
dys = difficult
-phasia = speak

impairment of speech caused by a brain lesion
egocentric
eg/o = I,self
centr = center
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to being self-centered
electroencephalograph
electr/o = electricity
encephal/o = brain
-graph = to write

an instrument used to record the electrical activity of the brain
electromyography
electr/o = electricity
my/o = muscle
-graphy = recording

recording of the contraction of a skeletal muscle as a result of electrical stimulation; used in diagnosing disorders of nerves supplying muscles
encephalitis
encephal = brain
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the brain
encephalomalacia
encephal/o = brain
-malacia = softening

softening of the brain
endorphins
chemical substances produced in the brain that act as natural analgesics
epidural
epi = upon
dur = dura, hard
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to situated upon the dura mater
epiduroscopy
epi = upon
dur/o = dura, hand
-scopy = to view, examine

minimally invasive form of surgery that introduces medication via an endoscope into the epidural space. it is used for back pain relief when all other conservative treatments have failed.
epilepsy
epi = upon
-lepsy = seizure

disorder od cerebral function resulting from abnormal electrical activity or malfunctioning of the chemical substances of the brain.
ganglionectomy
ganglion = knot
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a ganglion (mass of nerve tissue outside the brain and spinal cord)
glioma
gli = glue
-oma = tumor

tumor composed of neuroglial tissue
hemiparesis
hemi = half
-paresis = weakness

slight paralysis that affects one side of the body
hemiplegia
hemi = half
-plegia = stroke, paralysis

paralysis that affects one half of the body
herpes zoster
acute viral disease characterized by painful vesicular eruptions along the segment of the spinal or cranial nerves
hydrocephalus
hydro = water
cephal = head
-us = pertaining to

pertaining to an increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain
hyperesthesia
hyper = excessive
-esthesia = feeling

excessive feelings of sensory stimuli, such as pain, touch, or sound
hyperkinesis
hyper = excessive
-kinesis = motion

excessive muscular movement and motion; inabilty to be still; hyperactivity
hypnosis
hypn = sleep
-osis = condition of

artificially induced condition of sleep
intracranial
intra = within
crani = skull
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to within the skull
laminectomy
lamin = thin plate
-ectomy = excision

surgical excision of a vertebral posterior arch
lobotomy
lob/o = lobe
-tomy = incision

surgical incision into the prefrontal or frontal lobe of the brain
meningioma
mening/i = membrane
-oma = tumor

tumor of the meninges that originates in the arachnoidal tissue
meningitis
mening = membrane
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the meninges of the spinal cord or brain
meningocele
mening/o = membrane
-cele = hernia

congenital herniation of the skull or spinal column in which the meninges protrude through an opening
meningomyelocele
mening/o = membrane
myel/o = spinal cord
-cele = hernia

congenital herniation of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect in the vertebral column
microcephalus
micro = small
cephal = head
-us = pertaining to

pertaining to an individual with a very small head
multiple sclerosis
scler = hardening
-osis = condition of

chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech
myelitis
myel = spinal cord
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the spinal cord
myelography
myel/o = spinal cord
-graphy = recording

x-ray recording of the spinal cord after injection of a radiopulse
narcolepsy
narc/o = numbness
-lepsy = seizure

chronic condition in which there are recurrent attacks of uncontrollable drowsiness and sleep
neuralgia
neur = nerve
-algia = pain

pain in a nerve or nerves
neurasthenia
neur = nerve
-asthenia = weakness

nervous weakness, exhaustion prostration common after depressed states
neurilemma
neur/i = nerve
-lemma = a sheath, husk, rind

thin membranous sheath that envelops a nerve fiber
neuroblast
neur/o = nerve
-blast = germ cell

germ cell from which nervous tissue is formed
neuroblastoma
neur/o = nerve
-blast = germ cell
-oma = tumor

malignant tumor composed chiefly of neuroblast; occurs mostly in infants and children
neurocyte
neur/o = nerve
-cyte = cell

nerve cell, neuron
neurofibroma
neur/o = nerve
fibr = fiber
-oma = tumor

fibrous connective tissue tumor, especially involving the Schwann cells of a nerve
neuroglia
neur/o = nerve
-glia = glue

supporting elements of the nervous system
neuroleptic
neur/o = nerve
lept = seizure
-ic = pertaining to

medicine that produces psychomotor slowing, emotional quieting, and extrapyramidal effects; antipsychotic
neuroma
neur = nerve
-oma = tumor

tumor of nerve cells and nerve fibers
neurosis
neur = nerve
-osis = condition of

emotional condition or disorder
neurotransmitter
substances within neurons and the cerebrospinal fluid that allow nerve cells to communicate with one another
oligodendroglioma
oligo = little
dendr/o = tree
gli = glue
-oma = tumor

malignant tumor derived and composed of oligodendroglia
pallidotomy
pallid/o = globus pallidus
-tomy = incision

surgical destruction of the globus pallidus of the brain done to treat involuntary movements or muscular rigidity in Parkinson's disease
palsy
loss of sensation or an impairment of motor function; paralysis
papilledema
papill = papilla
-edema = swelling

swelling of the optical disk, usually caused by increased intracranial pressure
paranoia
para = beside
-noia = mind

mental disorder
paraplegia
para = beside
-plegia = stroke, paralysis

paralysis of both legs and in some caes the lower portion of the body
paresis
slight, partial, or incomplete paralysis
paresthesia
par = beside
-esthesia = feeling

abnormal sensation, feeling of numbness, prickling, or tingling
Parkinson's disease
chronic diease of the nervous system. it is characterized by a loss of equilibrium and by salivation, frustration, nausea, dryness of the mouth, and muscular tremors
paroxysm
sudden recurrence of the symptoms of a disease, an axacerbation; spasm or seizure
pheochromocytoma
phe/o = dusky
chrom/o = color
cyt = cell
-oma = tumor

chromaffin cell tumor of the adrenal medulla or of the sympathetic nervous system
poliomyelitis
poli/o = gray
myel = spinal cord
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
polyneuritis
poly = many
neur = nerve
-itis = inflammation

inflammation of many nerves
psychosis
psych = mind
-osis = condition of

abnormal condition of the mind
psychosomatic
psych/o = mind
somat = body
-ic = pertaining to

pertaining to the interrelationship of the mind and the body
pyromania
pyro = fire
-mania = madness

a madness for fire
Reye's syndrome
acute disease that causes edema of the brain and increased intracranial pressure, hypoglycemia, and fatty infiltration of the liver and other vital organs. occurs in children and has a relation to aspirin administration.
somnambulism
somn = sleep
ambul = to walk
-ism = condition of

condition of sleepwalking
spondylosyndesis
spndyl/o = vertebra
syn = together
-desis = binding

surgical procedure to bind vertebra after removal of a herniated risk
subdural
sub = below
dur = dura, hand
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to below the dura mater
syncope
syn = together
-cope = strike

temporary loss of consciousness caused by a lack of blood supply to the brain
tactile
pertaining to the sense of touch
Tay-Sachs disease
inherited disease that predominantly affects Jewish children of Ashkenazi origin. it is a progressive disease marked by degeneration of brain tisse.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulations (TENS)
use of mild electrical stimulation to interfere with the transmission of painful stimuli
vagotomy
vag/o = vagus, wandering
-tomy = incision

surgical incision of the vagus nerve
ventriculometry
ventricul/o = little belly
-metry = measurement measurement of intracranial pressure
auricle
aur/i = ear
-cle = small

external portion of the ear
biaural
bin = twice
aur = ear
-al = pertaining to

pertaining to both ears
cerumen
earwax, yellowish substance secreted by the glands in the canal of the external ear
cholesteatoma
chol/e = gall or bile
steat = fat
-oma = tumor

a tumor-like mass filled with epithrlial cells and cholesterol
cochlea
portion of the inner ear shaped like a snail shell; contains organs of hearing referred to as the organ of Corti