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54 Cards in this Set

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ventral
Refers to the front or belly side of the body or organ
anterior
Means situated in the front. It also means on the forward part of an organ.
superior
This means uppermost, above, or toward the head.
cephalic
Toward the head.
proximal
Situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure.
medial
The direction toward or nearer the midline.
dorsal
Refers to the back of the body or organ.
posterior
Situated in the back. It also means on the back pasrt of an organ.
inferior
Lowermost, below or toward the feet.
caudal
Toward the lower part of the body.
distal
Situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure.
lateral
The direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline.
body planes
Body planes are imaginary vertical and horizontal lines that are used to divide the body in the anatomic position into sections for descriptive purposes.
vertical planes
A vertical plane is any up-and-down line that is at a right angle, i.e. perpendicular, to the horizon.
sagittal plane
Any vertical plane that divides the whole body in unequal left and right portions.
midsagittal plane
Also know as midline, a sagittal plane that divides the body, from top to bottom, into equal left and right halves.
coronal plane
Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. Also known as the frontal plane, this is any vertical plane located at right angles to the sagittal plane.
horizontal plane
A flat crosswise line like the horizon.
transverse plane
This is the horizontal plane that divides the whole body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions. The transverse plane can be at the waist level or at any other level across the body.
dorsal cavity
The dorsal cavity is located in the skull and within the spinal column and is divided into two parts.
cranial cavity
Located withing the skull, protects the brain.
spinal cavity
Located with the spinal column, protects the spinal cord.
homeostasis
Means maintaining a constant internal environment.
thoracic cavity
Also known as the chest cavity or thorax, protects the heart and the lungs.
abdominal cavity
Contains primarily the major organs of digestion, is frequently referred to simpy as the abdomen.
pelvic cavity
The space formed by the pelvic (hip) bones. It contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.
anaplasia
A change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other.
aplasia
The defective development or the congenital absence of an organ or tissue.
dysplasia
Abnormal tissue development.
hypertrophy
General increase in the bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation, enlargement is due to increase in size. Not the numeber of cells in tissue.
hypoplasia
The incomplete development of an organ or tissue.
histology
The study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues.
epithelial tissues
Epithelial tissues form a protective covering for all of the internal and external organs
epithelium
epithelium is the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membrane
endothelium
endothelium is the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs.
connective tissues
These are tissue that support and connect organs and other body parts.
dense connective tissues
Bone and cartilage are the second hardest material in the body.
adipose tissue
This connective tissue also known as fat, provides protection, padding, insulation, and support. It also acts as a nutrient reserve.
loose connective tissue
Loose connective tissue surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels.
liquid connective tissues
Blood and lymph are liquid connective tissues.
muscle tissue
This tissue contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
infectious disease
An illness caused by living pathogenic organisms or bacteria.
idiopathic disorder
An illness without known cause.
organic disorder
Are pathologic physical changes that explain the symptoms being experienced by the patient.
functional disorder
There are no detectable physical changes to explain the symptoms that are being experienced by the patient.
iatrogenic illness
A problem such as a side effect or an unfavorable response.
nosocomial infection
An infection acquired in a hospital or clininc
endemic
Refers to the ongoing pressence of a disease within a population, group, or area.
epidemic
A sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a population group or area.
pandemic
Refers to an outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide.
mitochodria
Provide energy for the cell.
organelles
Small structures that help carryout day-day operations of the cell.
ribosome
Participate in protein creation.
lysosomes
Contain enzymes that aid in digestion.