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304 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abrasion
wearing away of the upper layer of skin
Abscess
a cavity containing puss and surrounded by inflamed tissue
Accommodation
process by which intellectual acts are changed to handle increasingly complex information
Acetaminophen
Tylenol; class- antipyretic, nonopioid analgesics;
Acoustics
a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception and effects of sound
Active Aquired Immunity
a form of active long term immunity, it protects the body against a new infection as a result of antibodies that form naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination.
Acute
Rapid onset of a disease
Adrenalin
an endogenous adrenal hormone and synthetic agent used to treat anaphylaxis, acute bronchiole spasms and nasal congestion
Adventitious Breath Sounds
Not normally hard in the lungs but, if present, may be ausculated along with normal breath sounds
Advocacy
Protection and support of another's rights
Aerobic
Requires Oxygen
Afebrile
a condition in which the body temp is not elevated
Ageism
Attitudes that sterotype the older adult on the basis of chronologic age
Albumin
The main protein in human blood and the key to the regulation of the osmotic pressure of blood.
Alopecia
baldness
Alzheimer's
type of dementia in which discrete patches of brain tissue degenerate
Anaerobic
does not require oxygen
Anaphylactic Shock
a severe and sometimes fatal systemic allergic reaction
Angiography
A procedure performed to view blood vessels after injecting them with a radioopaque dye that outlines them on x-ray.
Antibiotic
agent that destroys bacteria
Antibody
immunoglobulin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
Antigen
foreign material capable of producing a specific immune response
Antigen-Antibody Complex
a process of the immune system in which immunoglobulin-coated B cells recognize a specific antigen and stimulate antibody production
Antihistamine
any substance capable of reducing the effects of histamine
Antimicrobial
antibacterial agent that kills bacteria or suppresses their growth
Antipyretics
agent that reduces fever
Antiseptic
substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria
Apical Pulse
pulse found over the apex of the heart
Apnea
absence of breathing
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries, as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood.
Asepsis
absence of disease producing microorganisms; being free of infection
Asphyxiation
Air does not reach the lunds and breathing stops
Aspirin
mild pain reliever and fever reducer; also used to prevent platelet aggregation
Assay
An assay is an analysis done to determine: ** The presence of a substance and the amount of that substance. ** The biological or pharmacological potency of a drug.
Assessing
Systematically and continuously collect, validate, and communicate pateint data
Assimilation
process by which a person interprets information to fit the current level of cognition.
Astringent
able to draw together the soft organic tissues
Auscultation
The act of listening with a stethoscope to sound produced w/I the body
Autoclave
sterilization equipment
Axilla
under the arm, or arm pit
Bacteremia
the presence of bacteria in the blood
Bacteria
the most significant and most commonly observed infection causing agent
Bactericide
substance or agent that destroys bacteria
Bacteriostatic agent
substance that restricts the growth and activity of bacteria without killing them
Bandage
Piece of gauze or other material used to cover a wound
Barium Swallow
The test involves filling the esophagus, stomach, and small intestines with a white liquid material (barium).
Barrier technique
reverse isolation (immunocompromised pts, and others who are highly susceptible to disease)
Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
Blood chemistry including calcium, glucose, BUN, and Creatinine.
Benadryl
common over the counter anti-histamine
Binder
type of bandage, usually designed to fit a large body area
Bioterrorism
The deliberate spread of pathogenic organisms into a community
Blood Chemistry
(BMP, CMP, SMA) – Test calcium, glucose, BUN, and creatinine levels in the blood.
Blood Pressure
refers to the force of the blood against arterial walls
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
A measure primarily of the urea level in blood. Urea is cleared by the kidney. Diseases that compromise the function of the kidney frequently lead to increased blood levels.
Blood/Body fluid precautions
universal precautions for protecting self and others from blood borne pathogens.
Body substance precautions (BSI)
employs generic infection prevention for clients; assumes that everyone is at high risk; more inclusive than other isolations; CDC and OSHA guidelines for urine, feces, drainage, and oral secretions
Bounding Pulse
pulsation is strong and does not disappear with moderate pressure.
Braden Scale
used to identify factors causing pressure ulcer development
Bradycardia
is a pulse rate below 60 beats/min in an adult.
Bradypnea
slow breathing
Bronchial Sounds
Heard over the tracheas are high-pitched, harsh sounds w/ exiration being longer than inspiration
Bronchoscopy
is a procedure during which an examiner uses a viewing tube to evaluate a patient’s lung and airways including the voice box and vocal cord, trachea, and many branches of bronchi.
Bronchovesicular Sounds
Heard over the mainstem bronchus and are moderate "blowing" sounds, with inspiration equal to expiration
Bruits
Abnormal sounds, are "swooshing" sound similar to murmurs and are heard over major blood vessels.
Cachexia
general physical wasting and malnutrition
Cardiac Enzymes
(CPK, CPK-MB, Troponin) – most sensitive indicator of cardiac enzymes
Caries
Fillings in teeth
Carrier
a person or animal who harbors and spreads an organism that causes disease in others, but does not become ill
Case Manager
a nurse who works with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and monitor outcomes
Cell-mediated Immune Response
a delayed reaction of the immune system, mediated primarily by sensitized T lymphocytes rather than antibodies
Center for Disease Control (CDC)
government agency whose responsibilities include investigation, identification, prevention, and control of disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
watery fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord.
Cerumen
Wax in the external ear canals, consisting of heavy oil and brown pigments
Cheilosis
inflammation and cracking of the lips
Chemical terrorism
involves the deliberate release of a chemical compound for the purpose of causing mass destruction.
Cheyne-Stokes
gradual increase and then gradual decrease in depth of respirations followed by a period of apnea.
Clean
aseptic; absence of almost all microorganisms
Coagulation Studies
(PT, PTT, INR, Bleeding Time) - The process by which the blood clots to form solid masses, or clots.
Cognitive Development
learning occurs as a result of the internal organization of an event, which forms a mental schema and serves as a base for further schemata as one grows and develops.
Collaboration
a working relationship with another health care provider in the provision of client care
Collagen
white fibers of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone
Colonization
1 the invasion of a new habitat by a new species 2 the presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage.
Colonoscopy
A long flexible viewing tube is threaded up through the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the entire colon and rectum. Bowel cleansing is required to assure a clear view of the lining.
Combustible
capable of combustion, or catching on fire.
Complement
thermolabile substance, normally present in serum, that is destructive to certain bacteria
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
stands for complete blood count, a set values of the cellular (formed elements) of blood.
Computerized Tomography (CT Scan)
Pictures of structures within the body created by a computer that takes the data from multiple X-ray images and turns them in pictures. ***Good for imaging soft tissues.
Conduction
transferring heat without touch
Contact isolation
personnel must be gloved when in contact with the pt, must wear gown if contact with infectious agent is likely, limit movement of the pt outside of the room, avoid sharing patient equipment.
Contaminate
make dirty or impure
Continuity of Care
the coordination of health care services by health care providers for clients moving from one health care setting to another and between and among health care professionals
Contusion
injury resulting in hemorrhage beneath unbroken skin
Convection
Conveyance of heat in liquids or gases by movement of the heated particles, as when the layer of water at the bottom of a heated pot rises.
Corticosteroids
hormones that influence and control key body processes
Creatinine
A chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.
Cue
Singnificant datat that is helpful in making decisions
Culture & Sensitivity (C&S)
A culture is the propagation of microorganisms in a growth media. Any body tissue or fluid can be evaluated in the laboratory by culture techniques in order to detect and identify infectious processes. Culture techniques also be used to determine sensitivity to antibiotics
Cyanosis
A bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin in response to inadequate O2
Cystoscopy
direct visual examination of the bladder, ureteral orifices and urethra
Data
Information
Database
All the pertininet pt information that enables a comprehensice and effection plan of care to be designed and implemented for the pt
Dehiscence
Separation of the layers of a surgical wound; maybe partial, superficial or a complete disruption of the surgical woulnd
Dermis
underlying portion of the skin
Desquamation
The shedding of the cuticle in scales or of the outer layer of any surface.
Development
a dynamic and continuous process, characterized by a series of ascents, plateaus, and declines as one proceeds through life
Development Task
successful achievement of psychomotor, psychosocial, or cognitive skills at certain periods in life.
Diaphoresis
sweat
Diastole
when the heart rests between beats.
Direct contact
coming in contact with
Disaster
An event of greater magnitude that requires the response of people outside the involved community
Disease
pathologic change in the structure or function of the body or mind
Disinfection
to free from infection, especially destroying harmful microorganisms.
Double bag technique
use extra bag if the outside of the bag is visibly soiled.
Drainage/Secretion precautions
wear clean non sterile gloves
Droplet spread
use private room, wear mask when working w/n 3 ft of the patient, transport patient out of room only when necessary and place surgical mask on the patient, keep visitors 3 feet from infected person
Dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
Dysrhythmia
Irregular heartbeat pattern
Ecchymosis
Collection of blood in the subcutaneous tissues causing purplish discolorization
Edema
accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces
Electrocardiogram (ECG,EKG)
A recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
A study of electrical current within the brain.
Emergency Assessment
assessment performed to identify life-threatening problems when a physiologic or psychological crises presents
Endogenous
1 growing within the body 2 originating from within the body or produced from internal causes
Enteric isolation
GI tract secretions, bowels (No Longer Recognized)
Environment
the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded
Epidermis
a superficial portion of the skin
Epinephrine
an endogenous adrenal hormone and synthetic agent used to treat anaphylaxis, acute bronchiole spasms and nasal congestion
Erythema
Redness of the skin
Erythromycin
an antibiotic used to treat bacterial and mycoplasmic infections
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
A test to examine your esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, and duodenum (first portion of small bowel) using a thin flexible tube that can be looked through or seen on a TV monitor.
Eupnea
normal breathing
Evaporation
a change from liquid to a vapor
Evisceration
Protrusion of muscles involving the contraction and relaxation of muscle groups
Excoriation
loss of the surface of the skin
Exogenous
1 outside the body 2 originating from outside the body or produced from external causes
Expiration
act of breathin out
Exudates
Fluid that accumulates in a wound, may contain serum, cellular debris, bacteria and WBC
Facilitation
the enhancement or reinforcement of any action or function so that it can be performed more easily.
Febrile
Increased body temp
Fever
elevation above the upper limit of normal body temperature; pyrexia
Fibrin
elastic filamentous protein
Fistula
An abnormal passage from an internal organ to the skin or from one internal organ to another
Flora
a plant or bacterial life
Focused Assessment
An assessment performed to gather data about a specific problem that has already been identified or toe identify new or overlooked problems
Fungi
plant-like organisms (molds and yeasts) that can also cause infections
Gastroscopy
is a diagnostic test that enables the doctor to look inside your stomach.
Gerontology
Study of all aspects of the aging process and their consequences
Gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
Granulations
new tissue that in pink/red in color and ocmposed of fibroclasts and small blood vessels that fill an open wound when it starts to heal
Ground
A connection from an electricty source to the earth through which electric current leakage can be harmlessly conducted.
Growth
progressive development
Halitosis
offensive breath
Health History
a collection of info obtained from the pt & from other sources concerning the pt’s physical status and psychologic, social, and sexual function.
Heat Exhaustion
a form of reaction to heat, marked by prostration, weakness, and collapse, resulting from severe dehydration.
Heat Stroke
exposure to excessively high temperatures
Hematology
The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the blood and bone marrow as well as of the immunologic, hemostatic (blood clotting) and vascular systems.
Hematoma
extravasated blood that is relatively or completely confined within an organ or tissue
Histamine
a compound found in all cells produced by the breakdown of histadine. It is released in allergic inflammatory reactions
Home Healthcare
Healthcare services provided in a pt's home
Hospice
the delivery of care for terminally ill clients either in health care facilities or in the client’s home
Host
animal or person on or within which microorganisms live.
Humoral
to do with immunity
Hyperemia
excess of blood in a body part
Hypersensitivity
an abnormal condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the immune system to an antigen
Hypertension
blood pressure elevated above the upper limit of normal
Hyperthermia
High body temp
Hypotension
blood pressure below the lower limit of normal
Hypothermia
Low body temp
Immune Serums
a serum containing antibodies against a specific disease; used to confer passive immunity to that disease.
Immunity
protection against infections
Immunosuppressant
a substance that lessens or prevents an immune response
Incident Report
A confidential document that objectively describes the circumstances of the accident
Incubation period
the time between exposure to a pathogenic organism and the onset of symptoms of disease
Infection
Disease state resulting from pathogens in or on the body
Infection control nurse
responsible for educating patients and staff about effective infection control techniques and for collecting statistics about infections
Inference
The judgment reached about a cue
Inflammatory response
a localized response of the body to injury or infection; protective mechanism that eliminates invading pathogens and allows for tissue repair to occur
Informed Consent
A process in which a person learns key facts about a clinical trial, including potential risks and benefits, before deciding whether or not to participate in a study
Initial Assessment
comprehensive nursing assessment resulting in baseline data that enables the nurse to make a judgment about a pt's
Inspection
Purposeful an dsystematic observation
Inspiration
act of breathing in
Integument
Skin
Interdisciplinary
health care workers who are members of the same disciplines
Interview
Planned communication for a specific purpose
Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
An x-ray of the kidneys and urinary tract. Structures are made visible by the injection of a substance that blocks x-rays
Ischemia
deficiency in blood supply
Isolation
protective procedure designed to prevent the transmission of specific microorganisms; also called protective aseptic techniques or barrier techniques
Jaundice
A yellow color of skin resulting from liver and gallbladder disease, some types of anemia and hemolysis.
Keloid
mass of hyperplastic scar tissue
Kussmaul's Respiration
an extreme rate and depth of breathing
Kyphosis
forward (flexion) curvature of the spine
Laceration
A torn or jagged wound, or an accidental cut wound
Latency
dormant, existing a potential
Leukocytes
white blood cell
Liver Function Studies
"**ALT - Alanine aminotransferase. The normal range is 5-40 IU/L
*AST - Aspartate aminotransferase. The normal range is 5-40 IU/L.
Lumbar Puncture (LP)
Obbtains a sample of the fluid in the spinal canal (the cerebrospinal fluid) for examination.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
a radiology technique which uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. The MRI scanner is a tube surrounded by a giant circular magnet
Mammography
A mammogram is an x-ray test that produces an image of the inner breast tissue on film which is used to visualize normal and abnormal structures within the breasts.
Maturation
the emergence of personal and behavioral characteristics through growth processes.
Medical asepsis
practices designed to reduce the number and transfer of pathogens; clean technique
Methcillin Resistant Staphyloccuc areus (MRSA)
resistant strain of bacteria
Microorganisms
an organism of microscopic or ultra-microscopic size
Minimum Data Set
A standard established by most shcools of nursing and healthcare institutions that specifies the infromation that must be collected from every patient
Moral
concerned with what constitutes right action; more informal and personal that the term ethics
Necrosis
death of cells
Negotiation
coming up with a mutual agreement
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
anti-inflammatory- ex ibuprophen
Normal Flora
microorganisms that normally inhabit various body cites and are part of the body’s natural defense system
Nosocomial infection
hospital acquired infection
Nuclear Scanning
Administration of a radionuclide, then measuring amount of radiation in a particular organ.
Nuclear Terrorism
involves the intentional dispersal of radio-active materials into the environment for the purpose causing injury and death
Nursing History
data collected about a patient’s level of wellness, changes in life patterns, sociocultural role, and mental and emotional reactions to illness.
Objective Data
information (data) that is detectable by an observer or can be tested against an accepted standard; can be seen, heard, felt or smelled
Observation
Conscious and deliberate use of the five senses to gather data
Ophthalmoscope
A lighted instrument, one of the most important tools of the physician, used to examine the interior of the eye, including the lens, retina and optic nerve.
Orthopnea
type of dyspnea in which breathing is easier when the patient sits or stands.
Orthostatic Hypotension
low blood pressure associated w/ weakness of fainting when one rises to an erect position
Osmolality
a count of the total number of osmotically active particles in a solution and is equal to the sum of the molalities of all the solutes present in that solution
Osteoporosis
Condition characterized by loss of calcium from bone tissue
Pallor
Paleness of the skin often resulting from an inadequate amount of circulating blood or hemoglobin, causing inadequate oxygenation of the body tissues.
Palpation
An assessment tech that uses the sense of touch
Paracentesis
The removal of fluid from a body cavity using a needle, trocar, cannula, or other hollow instrument.
Passive Aquired Immunity
a form of acquired immunity
Pathogen
disease producing microorganism
Pediculosis
Infestation with lice
Penicillin
a group of antibiotics derived from fungus cultures
Percussion
The act of striking one object against another to produce sound
Percussion Hammer
Medical equipment used to test reflex activity
Petechiae
Small hemorrhagic spots caused by capillary bleeding
Phagocytosis
engulfing of microorganisms, foreign particles, or other cells by phagocytes; cell eating
Physical Assessment
Systematic examination of the pt for objective data to better define the pt's condition and to help the nursing in planning care; usually performed in a head-to-toe format
Plaque
transparent, adhesive coating on teeth consisting of mucin, carbs and bacteria
Poison Control Center
provides checklists for "poison-proofing" at home & provide lists of toxic household items.
Posey Restraint
vest type restraint used to prevent a patient from falling
Precordium
anterior surface of the chest wall overlying the heart and its related structures
Pressure Ulcer
any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue
Prostaglandins
one of several potent unsaturated fatty acids that act in exceedingly low concentrations on local target organs
Protective isolation
Same as contact, but protects patient. (All protective gear)
Psychosocial
relating social conditions to mental health
Pulse
wave produced in the wall of the artery with each beat of the heart
Pulse deficit
difference between the apical and radial pulse rates
Pulse Oximetry
a procedure for measuring the concentration of oxygen in the blood
Pulse Pressure
difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
Pyorrhea
extensive inflammation of the gums and alveolar tissues
Pyrexia
fever
Radiation
sending forth of light, short radio waves, ultraviolet or x-rays, or any other rays for treatment or diagnosis or for other purpose
Referral
an arrangement for services by another care provider or agency
Regulatory Agencies
ANA, JCAHO, Chap, OSHA – all regulate the laws of the medical field
Rehabilitation
the restoration of an individual or a part to normal or near normal function after a disabling disease, injury, addiction, or incarceration
Reservoir
natural habitat for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms.
Respirations
breathes
Respiratory isolation
Airborne vs. Droplet (Use of masks)
Restraint
device used to limit movement or immobilize a client
Review of Systmes
a brief review of essential functioning of various body parts or systems
Salicylate
aspirin
Scans
the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of the body by gathering information with a sensing device
Sebaceous Glands
glands that secrete an oily substance called sebum that lubricate skind and hair
Senility
Old age
Serum
The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood.
Shearing Force
force created when layers of tissue move on one another
Sitz bath
special type of bath that applies heated water to the pelvic or rectal area
Skilled Care
general rehab
Spore
a primitive unicellular, or reproductive body produced by plants & some microorganisms & capable or development into a new individual either directly or after fusion w/ another spore.
Standard precautions
precautions protecting hospital staff from infection
Sterile
free from living organisms and especially microorganism
Sterilization
process by which all microorganisms, including spores, are destroyed.
Strict isolation
Same as contact, use every PPE
Subcutaneous
being, living, used, or made under the skin
Subjective data
Data retrieved from the patient’s description of an event rather than from a physical examination
Sulfonamides
a large group of antibiotics used to treat gram positive and gram negative infections
Surgical asepsis
sterile technique; designed to keep area free of all organisms and spores
Susceptible
degree of resistance of a host to a pathogen
Suture
To unite two surfaces by sewing
Systole
when the ventricles of the heart contract
Tachycardia
rapid heart rate
Tartar
hard deposit on the teeth near the gum line formed by plaque buildup and dead bacteria
Temperature
refers to the hotness or coldness of a substance
Terminal disinfection
cleaning of room after discharge of patient.
Tetracycline
an antibiotic
Texture
the visual or tactile surface characteristics and appearance of something.
Therapeutic Environment
environment that has beneficial elements that support a client’s mind, body, and spirit.
Thoracentesis
Removal of fluid in the pleura through a needle.
Time-lapsed assessment
An assessment that is scheduled to compare a pt's current status to baseline data obtained earlier
Tongue Blade
medical tool used to check gag and swallowing reflexes
Toxoid
a toxin that has been treated with chemicals or heat to a decrease its toxic effect but that retains its antigenic power. It is given to produce immunity by stimulating the creation of antibodies
Transfer forceps
sterile forceps used to prevent a break in the sterile field
Transmission Based Precautions
Used in pts known or suspected to be infected with pathogens that can be transmitted by airborne, droplet, or contact routes, used in addition to standard precautions
Tuberculosis isolation
Transmission based private room w/special ventilation. Airborne or droplet. (Use N-95 particulate respirator)
Tuning Fork
medical tool used for checking hearing
Turgor
The fullness or elasticity of the skin and is usually assessed on the sternim or under the clavicle.
Ultrasound
is a radiology technique, which uses high- frequency sound waves to produce images of the organs and structures of the body.
Urinalysis
is simply an analysis of the urine
Uritcaria
a puritic skin eruption characterized by transient wheals of varying shapes and sizes within well-defined erythematous margins and pale centers
Vaccine
a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms administered to induce active immunity to an infectious disease
Vaginal Speculum
An instrument used to widen the opening of the vagina so that the cervix is more easily visible. "Speculum" is the Latin word for mirror
Validation
Act of confimring or verifying
Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
microorganism resistant to vancomycin
Vector
an organism that transmits a pathogen
Venipuncture
Collection of blood specimen from a vein for laboratory testing.
Vesicular Breath Sound
Soft, low-pitched sounds, heard best over the base of the lungs during inpiration which is longer than expiration.
Virulence
ability to produce disease
Virus
smallest of all microorganisms; can only be seen by using an electron microscope
Vital Signs
Temp, pulse, respiration & blood pressure
Wound-skin isolation
standard precautions used.