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329 Cards in this Set

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Peristalsis
the involuntary, progressive, rhythmic contraction of muscles in the wall of the esophagus propelling the bolus toward stomach
fundus
upper portion of the stomach
body
middle section of the stomach
antrum
lower portion of the stomach
hyperbilirubinemia
(jaundice)
yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of eyes and mucous membranes
absorption
passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the blood stream
anus
opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
bile
digestive juices made in the liver & stored in the gallbladder (composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts)
bowel
intestine
canine teeth
pointed, dog-like teeth, next to the incisors, also called cuspids or eye teeth
cecum
first part of lg. intestine
colon
lg. intestine
defecation
expulsion or passage of feces from the body through anus
deglutition
swallowing
digestion
breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum
1st part of the small intestine, measures 12"
elimination
removal of waste material from the body
esophagus
tube connecting the throat to the stomach
feces
solid wastes; stools
gallbladder
small sac under the liver, stores bile
ileum
third part of the small intestine
incisor
one of the four front teeth in the dental arch
jejunum
second part of the sm. intestine
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscles between the esophagus & stomach (cardiac sphincter
mastication
chewing
molar teeth
sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
palate
roof of the mouth (the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate)
pancreas
organ under the stomach; produces insulin
papillae
(singular: papilla)
small elevations on the tongue (a papilla is a nipple-like elevation)
pharynx
throat, the common passage way for food from the mouth & air from the nose
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle fibers a the distal region of the stomach where it joins the duodenum
rectum
last section of the colon
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon; shaped like an S
sphincter
ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth
an/o
anus
append/o, appendic/o
appendix
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
belly, abdomen
colon/o
colon
dent/i
tooth
esophag/o
esophagus
lapar/o
abdomen
mandibul/o
lower jaw, mandible
or/o
mouth
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
sialaden/o
salivary gland
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
amyl/o
starch
bil/i
gall, bile
bilirubin/o
bilirubin
chlorhydr/o
hydrochloric acid
gluc/o, glyc/o
sugar
glycogen/o
glycogen, animal starch
lip/o, steat/o
fat, lipid
lith/o
stone
papillae
(singular: papilla)
small elevations on the tongue (a papilla is a nipple-like elevation)
pharynx
throat, the common passage way for food from the mouth & air from the nose
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle fibers a the distal region of the stomach where it joins the duodenum
rectum
last section of the colon
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon; shaped like an S
sphincter
ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth
an/o
anus
append/o, appendic/o
appendix
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
belly, abdomen
colon/o
colon
dent/i
tooth
esophag/o
esophagus
-ase
enzyme
-chezia
defecation, elimination of wastes
-iasis
abnormal condition
-prandial
meal
anorexia
lack of appetite
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract
constipation
difficulty in passing stools
diarrhea
frequent passage of loose, watery stools
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
flatus (flatulence)
gas expelled through the anus
hematochezia
passage of bright, fresh, red, blood from the rectum
jaundice (icterus)
yellow-orange coloration of the skin and ohter tissues caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia)
melena
black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
nausea
unpleasant sensation in the stomach and a tendency to vomit
steatorrhea
fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling, fecal matter
aphthous stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers (canker sores)
dental caries
tooth decay
herpetic stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus (fever blisers; cold sores)
oral leukoplakia
white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
periodontal disease
inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone (pyorrhea)
achalasia
failure of the lower esophagus sphincter to relax
esophageal varices
swollen, varicose veins in the distal portion of the esophagus or upper part of the stomach
gastric carcinoma
malignant tumor of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach (heartburn)
hernia
protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
hiatal hernia
upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm
inguinal hernia
occurs when a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle
peptic ulcer
open sore of lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
colonic polyposis
polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous memebrane of the colon
colorectal cancer
adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both
Crohn disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon)
diverticulosis
abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall
dysentery
painful, inflamed intestines
hemorrhoids
swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
ileus
failure of peritalsis with obstruction of the intestines
intussusception
telescoping of the intestines
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
group of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with stress and tension
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
(inflammatory bowel disease)
volvulus
twisting of the intestine upon itself
cholelithiasis
gallstones in the gallbladder
(calculi)
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema)
x-ray images of the colon and rectum after injecting barium into the rectum
upper gastrointestinal series
x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after administering barium by mouth (barium swallow)
cholangiography
x-ray examination of the biliary system after injecting contrast into the bile ducts
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
the contrast medium enters via needle through the abdominal wall into the liver
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
contrast medium is injected via catheter (tube) through
the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and then into bile ducts
computed tomography; CT; CT scan; or CAT scan (A=axial)
x-ray series showing cross-sectional images of internal organs allows visualization
abdominal ultrasonography (ultrasound; sonography; sonogram)
sound waves beamed into the abdomen, produce an image of abdominal viscera
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
magnetic and radio waves produce images or organs and tissues in all three planes of the body
liver scan
image of the liver after injecting radioactive material into the blood stream
BE
barium enema
BRBPR
bright red blood per rectum; hematochezia
BM
bowel movement
CT scan
computed tomography
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GB
gallbladder
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
IBD
inflammatory bowel disease
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
NG tube
nasogastric tube
NPO
nothing by mouth
PUD
peptic ulcer disease
TPN
total parenteral nutrition
albino
person with skin deficient in pigment
basal layer
the deepest region of the epidermis; it gives rise to all the epidermal cells
dermis
middle layer of skin; also called corium
epidermis
outermost layer of the skin
epithelium
layer of cells forming the outer & inner surfaces of the body
hair follicle
sac w/in which each hair grows
integumentary system
the skin & its accessory structures such as hair & nails
lipocyte
a fat cell
lunula
the half-moon-shaped, white area at the base of a nail
melanin
major pigment that gives the skin color; formed by melanocytes in the epidermis
sebaceous gland
Oil-secreting gland in the dermis that is associated w/ hair follicles
sebum
oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands
subcutaneous tissue
the innermost layer of the skin, containing fat tissue
keratin
hard protein found in hair
caus/o
burn, burning
cauter/o
heat, burn
cutane/o
skin
derm/o, dermat/o
skin
diaphor/o
profuse sweating
erythem/o, erythemat/o
redness
hidr/o
sweat
ichthy/o
scaly, dry (fish-like)
kerat/o
hard, horny tissue
myc/o
fungus (fungi include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms)
onych/o, ungu/o
nail
phyt/o
plant
pil/o
hair
rhytid/o
wrinkle
seb/o
sebum (oily secretion from sebaceous glands)
squam/o
scale-like
xer/o
dry
-derma
skin
crust
collection of dried serum and cellular debris
cyst
thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material
erosion
wearing away of loss of epidermis
fissure
groove or crack-like sore
macule
discolored (often reddened) flat lesion
nodule
solid, elevated lesion more than 1cm in diameter
papule
small (less than 1cm in diameter), solid elevation of the skin
polyp
mushroom-like growth extending on a stalk from the surface of mucous membrane
pustule
small elevation of the skin containing pus
(abscess-collection of pus)
ulcer
open sore on the skin or mucous membrane
(decubitus ulcers- bed sores)
vesicle
small collection of clear fluid (serum); blister
(bullae=large blisters)
wheal
smooth, slightly elevated edematous (swollen) area that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin
alopecia
absence of hair from areas where it normally grows
alopecia areata
condition in which hair falls out in patches
ecchymosis (plural: ecchymoses)
bluish-black mark (macule) on the skin; black-and-blue mark
petechia (plural: petechiae)
a small, pinpoint hemorrhage
pruritus
itching
purpura
merging ecchymoses and petechiae over any part of the body
urticaria (hives)
acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on the skin
acne
(abnormal cond)
papular and pustular eruption of the skin
burns
injury to tissues caused by heat contact
cellulitis
diffuse, acute infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling
eczema
inflammatory skin disease w/ erythematous, papulvesicular lesions
exanthematous viral diseases
rash (exanthem) of the skin due to a viral infection
gangrene
death of tissue associated w/ loss of blood supply
impetigo
bacterial inflammatory skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions
psoriasis
chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red palques covered by silvery gray scales
scabies
a contagious, parasitic infection of the skin w/ intense pruritus
scleroderma
a chronic progressive disease of the skin w/ hardening & shrinking of connective tissue
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
chronic inflammatory disease of collagen in the skin, of joints, & of internal organs
tinea
infection of the skin caused by a fungus
tinea corporis
ringworm
tinea pedis
athlete's foot
tinea capitis
on the scalp
tinea barbae
affecting the skin under a beard
tinea unguium
affecting the nails
vitiligo
loss of pigment (depigmentation) in areas of the skin (milk-white patches)
callus
increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction
keloid
hypertrophied, thickened scar that occurs after trauma or surgical incision
keratosis
thickened area of the epidermis
leukoplakia
white, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek
nevus (plural: nevi)
pigmented lesion of the skin
verruca
epidermal growth caused by a virus (wart)
basal cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis
Kaposi sarcoma
malignant, vascular, neoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules; frequently on the lower extremities
malignant melanoma
cancerous growth composed of melanocytes
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells of the epidermis
bacterial analyses
sample of skin are sent to a laboratory to detect presence of microorganisms
purulent
pus-filled
(bacterial analyses)
exudate
fluid that accumulates
(bacterial analyses)
cryosurgery
use of subfreezing temperature via liquid nitrogen application to destroy tissue
curettage
use of sharp dermal curet (curette) to scrape away a skin lesion
electrodesiccation
tissue is destroyed by burning w/ an electric spark
Moh's surgery
thin layers of a malignant growth are removed, & each is examined under a microscope (microscopically controlled surgery
skin biopsy
suspected malignant skin lesions are removed & sent to the pathology laboratory for microscopic examination
skin test
the rct of the body to a subastance by observing the results of injecting the substance intradermally or applying it topically to the skin
patch test
(skin test)
allergen-treated piect of gauze or filter paper is applied to the skin; if skin gets red & swollen the result is positive
scratch test
(skin test)
seveal scratches are made in the skin & a very minute amt of test material is inserted into the scratches
ABCD
asymmetry, border, color, diameter (char. assoc. w/ skin cancer)
bx
biopsy
Derm.
dermatology
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
subcut
subcutaneous
psychiatrists
specialist in the treatment of the mind
child psychiatrists
specialize in the treatment of children
forensic psychiatrists
specialize in the legal aspects of psychiatry
psychologist
nonmedical person who is trained in methods of psychotherapy
intelligence (I.Q.) test
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
projective (personality) tests
Rorschach technique (ink blots)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (pics for making up stories)
amnesia
loss of memory
anxiety
varying degrees of uneasiness, apprehension, or dread often accompanied by palpitations, tightness in the chest, bresthlessness, and choking sensations
apathy
abscence of emotions; lack of interest or emotional involvement
compulsion
uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
conversion
physical symptom w/ no organic basis, appearing as a result of anxiety and conflict
delusion
a fixed false belief that can't be changed by logical reasoning or evidence
dissociation
uncomfortable feelings r seperated from their real object; the feelings are redirected toward a second object or behavior pattern
dysphoria
sadness, hopelessness, depressive mood
euphoria
exaggerated feeling of well-being ("high")
hallucination
false or unreal sensory percerpiton (hearing voices when there are none)
labile
unstable undergoing rapid emotional change
mania
state of excessive excitability, hyperactivity and agitation
mutism
nonreactive state; stupor
obsession
an involuntary, persistent idea or emotion
paranoia
delusions or persecution or grandeur or combinations of the two
id
represents the unconscious
ego
central coordinating branch of the personality
superego
internalized conscience & moral part of the personality
psychosis
impairment of mental capacity to recognize reality, cmcn & relate to others
anxiety disorder
char. by anxiety
panic attack (disorder)
phobic disorders
delirium & dementia
disorders of abnormal cognition
cognition
mental processes of thinking, perception, reasoning, judgement
delirium tremens
brought on by w/drawl after prolonged periods of heavy alcohol ingestion
delirium
confusion in thinking; faulty perceptions and irrational behavior
dementia
loss of intellectual abilities w/ impairment of memory, judgement, and resoning as well as changes in personality
dissociative disorders
chronic or sudden disturbances of memory, identity, or consciousness,
(diss. identity disorder, diss.amnesia)
eating disorders
severe disturbances in eating behavior(anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa)
mood disorders
prolonged emotiondominates a person's life (bipolar disorder, depressive disorders)
personality disorder
lifelong personality patterns marked by inflexibility and impairment of social functioning (antisocial, histronic)
schizophrenia
char by w/drawl from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict (delusions, hallucinations)
sexual disorder
two types: paraphilias and sexual dysfunctions
paraphilias
recurrent intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve unusual objects activities or situations
exhibitionism
compulsive need to expose ones body esp genitals to an unsuspecting stranger
pedophilia
sexual urges and fantatsies involving sexual activity w/ a prepubescent child (13 or younger)
gender identity disorder
strong and persistent cross-gender identification w/ opposite sex
somatoform disorders
patient's mental conflicts are expressed as physical symptoms (conversion disorder, hypochondriasis)
conversion disorder
physical symptom w/ no organic basis, appearing as a result of anxiety and conflict
hypochrondiasis
preoccupation w/ bodily aches, pains, and discomforts in the absence of real illness
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electric current is used to produce convulsions in the treatment of depression.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder of excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body wt.
autism
severe lack of response to other people; w/drawl, inability to interact, & retarded language development
bipolar disorder
alternating periods of mania and depression
bulimia nervosa
binge eating followed by vomiting, purging, and depression
depression
major mood disorder w/ chronic sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, & discouragement & commonly suicidal impulses and thoughts
intelligence (I.Q.) test
a standardized test designed to determine mental age of an individual by measuring capacity to absorb information & solve problems
obsessive-compulsive disorder
anxiety disorder in which recurrent thoughts & repetitive acts dominate behavior
phobia
irrational or disabling fear of an object or situation
projective (personality) test
diagnostic test that uses unstructured stimuli to evoke responses that reflect aspects of an individual's personality
substance-related disorders
regular overuse of psychoactive substances that affect the CNS
anxi/o
uneasy, anxious, distressed
hallucin/o
hallucination, to wander in the mind
hypn/o
sleep
schiz/o
split
phil/o
attraction to, love
psych/o, phren/o, ment/o,
-thymia
mind
somat/o
body
-genic
produced by
-leptic
to seize hold of
-mania
obsessive preoccupation
-phobia
fear (irrational and often disabling)
-phoria
feeling, bearing
a-, an-
no, not
cata-
down
hypo-
deficient, less than, below
para-
abnormal
AD
Alzheimer disease
ADHD
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
C.A.
chronological age
CNS
central nervous system
DT
delirium tremens
ECT
electroconvulsive therapy
I.Q.
intelligence quotient
M.A.
mental age
OCD
obsessive-compulsive disorder
TAT
Thematic Apperception Test
WAIS
Wechsler Intelligence Scale
-emesis
vomiting
-lysis
destruction, breakdown, separation
-phagia
eating, swallowing
-rrhage, -rrhagia
bursting forth
-spasm
sudden involutary contraction of muscles
-stasis
to stop, control
-stenosis
tightening, stricture, narrowing
-tresia
opening
herni/o
hernia