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238 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abdomin/o
abdomen
celi/o
abdomen
lapar/o
abdomen
an/o
anus
appendic/o
appendix
bil/i
bile
chol/e
bile
bucc/o
cheek
cheil/o
lip
col/o
colon
colon/o
colon
cyst/o
bladder or sac
dent/i
teeth
doch/o
duct
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gum
gloss/o
tongue
lingu/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
hepatic/o
liver
herni/o
hernia
ile/o
ileum
inguin/o
groin
jejun/o
jejunum (empty)
lith/o
stone
or/o
mouth
stomat/o
mouth
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
phag/o
eat or swallow
proct/o
anus and rectum
pylor/o
pylorus (gatekeeper)
rect/o
rectum
sial/o
saliva
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
steat/o
fat
-emesis
vomiting
oral cavity
cavity that receives food for digestion
salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
cheeks
lateral walls of the mouth
lips
fleshy structures surrounding the mouth
palate
structure that forms the roof of the mouth
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
tongue
muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and held down by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum
gums
tissue covering the processes of the jaws
teeth
hard bony projections in the jaws that serve to masticate (chew) food
pharynx
throat, passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and air traveling to the larynx
esophagus
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food received from the esophagus
cardiac sphincter
opening from the esophagus to the stomach (sphincter=band)
pyloric sphincter
opening of the stomach into the duodenum
small intestine
tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach
duodenum
first portion of the small intestine
jejunum
second portion of the small intestine
ileum
third portion of the small intestine
large intestine
larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
cecum
first part of the large intestine
vermiform appendix
worm-like projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function-may serve to resist infection (vermi=worm)
colon
portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum, identified by direction or shape
ascending colon
portion that extends upward from the cecum
transverse colon
portion that extends across from the ascending colon
descending colon
portion that extends down from the transverse colon
sigmoid colon
portion (resembling an s) that terminates at the rectum
rectum
distal (end) portion of the large intestine
anus
opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
feces
refuse, solid waste formed in the large intestine
defecation
evacuation of feces from the rectum
peritoneum
membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity consisting of the parietal layer (lining the abdominal wall) and visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
peritoneal cavity
space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
liver
organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
gallbladder
receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver
pancreas
gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food
biliary ducts
ducts that convey bile, including hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts
hypochondriac region
upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
epigastric region
upper middle region below the sternum
lumbar regions
middle lateral regions
umbilical region
region of the navel
inguinal regions
lower lateral groin regions
hypogastric region
region below the navel
anorexia
loss of appetite (orexia=appetite)
aphagia
inability to swallow
ascites
accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos=bag)
buccal
in the cheek
constipation
infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass (consipo=to press together)
diarrhea
frequent loose or liquid stools
dyspepsia
indigestion (peptein=to digest)
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
eructation
belch
flatulence
gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus=a blowing)
halitosis
bad breath (halitus=breath)
hematochezia
red blood in the stool (chezo=defecate)
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
hyperbilirubinemia
excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
icterus
yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice=yellow)
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice=yellow)
melena
dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
nausea
sick in the stomach
steatorrhea
feces containing fat
sublingual
under the tongue
hypoglossal
under the tongue
stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
sialoadenitis
inflammation of a salivary gland
parotitis (parotiditis)
inflammation of the parotid gland, also called mumps
cheilitis
inflammation of the lip
glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
ankyloglosia
tongue-tie, a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum (ankylo=crooked or stiff)
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
esophageal varices
swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, often as a result of abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causes burning pain in the esophagus
pyloric stenosis
narrowed condition of the pylorus
peptic ulcer
a sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices, commonly caused by infection with bacteria
gastric ulcer
ulcer located in the stomach
duodenal ulcer
ulcer located in the duodenum
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
ileitis
inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
colitis
inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon along with ulcerations
diverticulum
a by-way, an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to a lack of dietary fiber
diverticulosis
presence of diverticula in the GI tract, especially in the bowel
diverticulitis
inflammation of diverticula
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
hernia
protusion of a part from its normal location
hiatal hernia
protusion of part of the stomach upward through the hiatal opening in the diaphragm
inguinal hernia
protusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
incarcerated hernia
hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction
strangulated hernia
hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous
umbilical hernia
protusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)
intussusception
prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus=within) (suscipiens=to take up)
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction
polyposis
multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high malignancy potential
polyp
tumor on a stalk
proctitis
inflammation of the rectum and anus
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula=pipe)
hemorrhoid
swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois=a vein likely to bleed)
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatitis A
infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water
hepatitis B
infectious inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
hepatitis C
inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted by exposure to infected blood (rarely contracted sexually)
cirrhosis
chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue, most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho=yellow)
cholangitis
inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
cholelithiasis
presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
choledocholithiasis
presence of stones in the common bile duct
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
endoscopy
examination within a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnosis or treatment
esophagoscopy
examination of the esophagus with an esophagoscope
gastroscopy
examination of the esophagus with a gastroscope
upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
examination of the lining of esophagus, stomach, and duedenum with a flexible endoscope
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas (biliary ducts)
laparoscopy
examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparascope, often including interventional surgical procedures
peritoneoscopy
examination of the peritoneal cavity with a peritoneoscope, often performed to examine the liver and obtain a biopsy specimen
capsule endoscopy
examination of the small intestine made by a tiny video camera placed in a capsule and swallowed
colonoscopy
examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
sigmoidoscopy
examination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope
proctoscopy
examination of the rectum and anus with a proctoscope
radiography
x-ray imaging
upper GI series
x-ray of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after the patient has swallowed a contrast medium (barium is most commonly used)
barium swallow
x-ray of the esophagus only, often used to locate swallowed objects
small bowel series
x-ray exam of the small intestine, generally done in conjuction with an upper GI series
lower GI series barium enema
x-ray of the colon after administeration of an enema containing a contrast medium
cholangiogram
x-ray of the bile ducts, often performed during surgery
cholecystogram
x-ray of the gallbladder taken after oral ingestion of iodine
computed tomography (CT) of abdomen
cross-sectional x-ray of the abdomen used to identify a condition or anomaly within the GI tract (tumor or injury)
CT colonography
computed tomographic image of the colon performed as an alternative to traditional invasive colonoscopy
biopsy
removal of tissue for microscopic pathological examination
endoscopic biopsy
removal of a specimen for biopsy during an endoscopic procedure (colonoscopy)
excisional biopsy
removal of an entire lesion for examination
incisional biopsy
removal of a portion of a lesion for examination
needle biopsy
percutaneous removal of a core specimen of tissue using a special hollow needle (ie. liver biopsy)
bariatric surgery
treatment for morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and/or intestines
cheiloplasty
repair of the lip
glossectomy
excision of all or part of the tongue
glossorrhaphy
suture of the tongue
esophagoplasty
repair of the esophagus
gastrectomy
partial or complete removal of the stomach
gastric resection
partial removal and repair of the stomach
abdominocentesis
puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid
paracentesis
puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid
laparotomy
incision into the abdomen
laparoscopic surgery
abdominal surgery using a laparoscope
herniorrhaphy
repair of a hernia
hernioplasty
repair of a hernia
colostomy
creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon
anastomosis
union of two hollow vessels, used in bowel surgery
ileostomy
surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges, performed after removal of the colon (to treat chronic inflammatory bowel diseases)
appendectomy
excision of a diseased appendix
incidental appendectomy
removal of the appendix during abdominal surgery for another procedure (ie. a hysterectomy)
polypectomy
excision of polyps
proctoplasty
repair of the anus and rectum
anal fistulectomy
excision of an anal fistula
hemorrhoidectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
hepatic lobectomy
excision of a lobe of the liver
cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope
cholelithotomy
incision for removal of gallstones
choledocholithotomy
incision of the common bile duct for extraction of gallstones
cholelithotripsy
crushing of gallstones
pancreatectomy
excision of the pancreas
gastric lavage
oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment (ie. to remove blood clots from the stomach and monitor bleeding) (lavage=to wash)
nasogastric (NG) intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach for various purposes (ie. to obtain a gastric fluid specimen for analysis)
antacid
drug that neutralizes stomach acid
antiemetric
drug that prevents or stops vomiting
antispasmodic
drug that decreases mobility in the GI tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea
cathartic
drug that causes movement of the bowels, also called a laxative
cholecysto
gallbladder
cholangio
bile duct (also sometimes referred to as hepatic duct)
odonto
teeth
choledocho
common bile dct
-lith
stone
-lithiasis
presence of stones
-lithotomy
incision to remove a stone
-lithotripsy
crushing of stones
-peritoneum
present in the peritoneum
-phagia
swallowing
-pepsia
digestion
-carcinoma
malignant tumor of epithelial tissue
-anastomosis
creating a communication between structures
sialangio
salivary duct
sialadeno
salivary gland
bowel
small intestine
colon
large intestine
anorectics
drugs used to suppress appetite
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by distorted body image, extreme fear of obesity and aversion to food
bulimia
eating disorder characterized by insatiable appetite with purging (vomiting and use of laxatives)
caries
cavities
bruxism
grinding of teeth
varices
varix=singular form, varicose=adjective, varicosity=noun
intussusception
telescoping of the intestine
hyperalimentation
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing for the patient's nutritional needs via enteric or parenteral infusion (blood vessel route)