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78 Cards in this Set

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lymphopoiesis
formation of lymph
interstitial fluid
:fluid in the spaces between cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries
platelets
these are the smallest blood cells that clump at sites of an injury to prevent bleeding and facillitate clotting.
AKA: thrombocyte

FYI: A FIBRIN clot (from the plasma protein fibrinogen)is the final result. Then the clot retracts leaving behind SERUM, a clear fluid.
bone marrow
myel/o
humoral immunity
immune response in which B cells transfer into plasma cells and secrete antibodies
T cell
a lymphocyte formed in the thymus gland; it acts directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals such as interferons and interleukins that are toxic to antigens.
immunoglobulins
plasma cells produce antibodies called (?) that bind to or sometimes destroy antigen.

FYI: examples are: IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells, monoclonal antibodies, and donor lymphocyte infusions.
tonsils
:masses of lymph tissue in the back of the oropharynx
thymus gland
organ in the mediastinum that produces T-cell lymphocytes and aids in the immune system
adenoids
:masses of lymph tissue is the nasopharynx
spleen
:organ near the stomach that produces, stores and eliminates blood cells
cytotoxic cell
is a T-cell lymphocyte that directly kills foriegn cells; also called T8 cell
interferons
:antiviral proteins (cytokines) secreted by T-cells; they also stimulate macrophages to digest bacteria
interleukins
are proteins (cytokins) that stimulate the growth of B or T cell lymphocytes and activate specific components of the immune response
lymphocytosis
abnormal condition of increase in lymphocytes
toxic

tox/o -ic
p/t poison
Hodgkin disease
:malignant tumor of lymph tissue in spleen and lymph nodes; Reed-Sternberg cell is often found on microscopic analysis
Kaposi sarcoma
malignant (cancerous) condition associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as bluish-red skin nodules
atopy
hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition.
FYI: From Greek word "atopia", which means strangeness
eosinophil
granulocytic WBC with granules that stain red with the acidic dye (?-see hint); associated with allergic reactions
granules that stain red with the acidic dye eosin
heparin
an anticoagulant - a substance produced by tissue cells to prevent blood clotting inside the blood vessels -unless the blood vessel is damaged.
fibrin
protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
electrophoresis
method of seperating serum proteins by electrical charge

Immunoglobulins can be seperaterd from other proteins in the plasma-electrical current passes through some plasma and the different proteins seperate at different rates as they go to the source of the electricity
antigen
a substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
bilirubin
orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemeglobin when red blood cells (RBC) die
poikilocytosis
irregularity in the shape of red blood cells (RBC). Occurs in certain types of anemia
poikil/o
irregular or varied
neutropenia
deficiency of neutrophils
-penia
deficiency
-blast
immature, embryonic
erythroblast
immature red blood cells (RBC)
-oid

Specific term used for these two chapter!
derived from
myeloid
derived from bone marrow
myel/o
bone marrow
hemolysis

(hem/o) (-lysis)
breakdown of red blood cells (RBC)

(RBC) + (breakdown)
remission
disappearance of signs of disease
relapse
re-appearance of signs of disease
purpura
multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin

caused by having too few platelets (thrombocytopenia)
Remember two P's are in
(P)in(P)oint
pancytopenia

(pan-) (cyt/o) (-penia)
deficiency of all blood cells

(all)+(cell)+(defiency)
palliative
relieving, not curing
eosinophilia
increase in numbers of eosinophils
erythrocytopenia
deficiency in RBC's
hypochromic

(hypo-)+(chrom/o)+(-ic)
p/t deficiency of color

FYI: this is a type of anemia with decreased hemoglobin in erythrocytes
microcytosis
abnormal condition of slight decrease in numbers of microcytes-RBC's are smaller than normal
polycythemia vera
general increase in RBC's

FYI: blood consistency is thick because of increased numbers of erythrocytes.
AKA: erythremia
macrocytosis

(macro-)+(cyt/o)+(-osis)
abnormal condition of a slight increase in numbers of macrocytes. RBC's are larger than normal.
FYI: macrocytes are erythrocytes that are larger than normal size
thymus gland
organ in the mediastinum that produces T-cell lymphocytes and aids in the immune response
lymphedema

(lymph/o)+(edema)
accumulation of lymph fluid in intercellular spaces causing swelling of tissue
(lymph)+(swelling)

FYI: Interstitial fluid collects within the spaces between cells. Radiation therapy may destroy lymphatics and produce (this word ?), as in breast cancer treatment
vaccination
introduction of altered antigens, viruses or bacteria, to produce an immune response and protection against disease.
thrombocytopenia
deficiency in clotting cells
coagulation
when blood clots
macrophage
monocyte (one-nuclei) that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces. It is a large phagocyte (ingestation cell)
neutrophil
a granulocyte WBC formed in bone marrow
this is a phagocyte with neutral-staining granules; also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte, or poly.
phagocytosis means ingestion of bacteria & cellular debris; very important in inflammation process
albumin
protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
pernicious anemia
lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B(12) into the body.

FYI: vitamin B(12) is necessary for proper development & maturation of erythrocytes. Individuals with (?)lack the substance called instrinsic factor.
myelogenous
p/t formed (produced) in the bone marrow
CT scan
Computerized x-ray imaging in the transverse plane


FYI:these x-ray views show abnormalities of lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, spleen and thymus gland
-computerized tomography
human immunodeficiency virus

FYI: HIV destroys T-cell helper lymphocytes (also called CD4+ cells) and thus distrupts the cell-mediated immune response.
Causes the syndrome "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" AIDS and any infectious disease associated with AIDS are opportunistic infections because HIV lowers resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that are easily otherwise contained by normal defenses.
HIV
herpes simplex
viral infection-causes small blisters on the skin of the lips or nose or on the genitals.

FYI: (opportunistic AIDS-related infection)
FYI: Herpes can also cause encephalitis
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
(opportunistic AIDS-related infection)
PCP
toxoplasmosis
or
Toxo
parasitic infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) and causing fever, chills, visual disturbances, confusion, hemiparesis and seizures. Pathogen is acquired by eating uncooked lamb or pork, unpasturized dairy products, raw eggs or vegetables.

(opportunistic AIDS-related infection)
cryptococcus
or
Crypto
yeast-like fungus that causes lung, brain, and blood infections-the pathogen is found in pigeon droppings, nesting places, air, water and soil.

FYI: is an (opportunistic AIDS-related infection)
-apheresis
removal, carry away
tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils
hematopoietic stem cell
blood-forming stem cells

Beginning at childbirth all blood cells originate in the marrow cavity of bones. Both red blood cells that carry oxygen and white blood cells that fight infection arise from the same blood-forming or (?) stem cells
leukocytes

NOT ON TEST 4/17
are WBC's that have a nuclei & do not contain hemoglobin

NOT ON TEST 4/17
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

FYI: these are produced in the bone marrow
What are some types of granular white blood cells?

NOT PART OF TEST 4/17
What are some types of agranular (or non-granular)WBCs?


NOT PART OF TEST ON 4/17
lymphocytes and monocytes

FYI: agranular white blood cells are produced in lymph tissue.

NOT PART OF TEST ON 4/17
erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
hemocytoblast
stem cell
-philia
an increase in numbers
an attraction for
-phoresis
transmission, carrying
hypo-
deficent
or under
chrom/o
color
-poiesis
formation
poly-
many, much
pan-
all
-genous
pertaining to produced in