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99 Cards in this Set

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leaflet
thin, flattened structure; term used to describe the leaf-shaped structures that compose a heart valve
lumen
tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube
regurgitation
backflow or ejecting contents through an opening
sphincter
circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that contracts or dilates to regulate passage of substances though its opening
vasoconstriction
narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications, or physiological processes
vasodilatation
widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
viscosity
state of being sticky or gummy
endocardium
serous membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart and its valves and is continuous with the endothelium of the arteries and veins
myocardium
the muscular layer of the heart
epicardium
outermost layer of the heart
aneurysm/o
widened blood vessel
aneurysmorrhaphy - suture of an aneurysm
angi/o

vascul/o
vessel
vasculitis
inflammation of the blood vessels
angioplasty
surgical repair of a vessel
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
arteriorrhexis - rupture of an artery
arteriol/o
arteriol
atri/o
atrium

atriomegaly - enlargement of the atrium
ather/o
fatty plaque

atheroma - tumor of fatty plaque
cardi/o
heart
electr/o
electricity
embol/o
embolus (plug)
hemangi/o
blood vessel

hemangioma - tumor of blood vessels
my/o
muscle
phleb/o

ven/o
vein
phlebectasis - expansion of a vein
scler/o
hardening; sclera (white of the eye)
arteriosclerosis - hardening of the artery
sept/o
septum
sphygm/o
pulse
sphygmoid - resembling a pulse
sten/o
narrowing, stricture
thromb/o
blood clot
ventricul/o
ventricle (of heart or brain)
-sphyxia
pulse
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
aneurysm
localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
arrest
condition of being stopped or brining to a stop
cardiac arrest
loss of effective cardiac function
circulatory arrest
cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation
arrhythmia
inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or skipping a beat. also called dysryhthmia
bruit
soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both, also called murmur
cardiomyopathy
any disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function
causes of cardiomyopathy include viral or bacterial infections, metabolic disorders, or general systemic disease
catheter
thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery or tubular space
coarctation
narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
blood clot that forms deep in the veins of the body, especially hose in legs or thighs
In DVT, blood clots may break away from the vein wall and travel in the body. If they lodge in the lung the condition is called pulmonary embolism.
ejection fraction (EF)
calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction
The left ventricular EF averages 50% to 70% in healthy hearts but can be markedly reduced if part of the heart muscle dies, as evident after an MI or in cardiomyopathy or valvular disease
heart failure
failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
embolus
mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until becomes lodged in a vessel
fibrillation
quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions
commonly corrected with defibrillator
hemostasis
arrest of bleeding or circulation
hyperlipidemia
excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood
Hypertension (HTN)
common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic, 90mm Hg diastolic
primary hypertension
HTN in which there is no identifiable cause, also called essential hypertension
most common form
secondary hypertension
HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause
hypertensive heart disease
any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart
In ventricular fibrillation, the heart quivers rather than beats,and blood is not pumped to the brain. Unless treatment is received within 5-10 minutes, ventricular fibrillation causes death
infarct
area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply
ischemia
local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
common and occasional serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing characteristic murmur heard on auscultation
Common signs of and symptoms of MVP include palpitations of the heart and occasionally, panic attacks, with pounding heartbeat. Because of the possibility of valve infection, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics is suggested before undergoing invasive procedures such as dental work
cardioversion
procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
palpitation
sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including thumping, fluttering, skipped beats, or a pounding feeling in the chest
patent duct arteriosus
failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary artery
perfusion
circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
tetralogy of fallot
congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis, (2) inter ventricular septal defect, (3) transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta, (4) right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle
stent
slender threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries
stents are used to support tubular structures that are being anastomosed or to induce maintain patency within the tubular structures
thrombus
blood clot that obstructs a vessel
cardiac catheterization (CC)
passage of catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
CC gathers information about the heart, such as blood supply through the coronary arteries and blood flow and pressure in the chambers of the heart as well as enabling blood sample collection and x-rays of the heart
electrocardiogram
graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs
ECGs help diagnose abnormal heart rhythms and myocardial damage
Holter monitor test
ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 24 hours of ECG tracings
Holter monitoring is particularly useful in obtaining cardiac arrhythmia record that would be missing during an ECG of only a few minutes
nuclear ECG
ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
In a nuclear stress test, the radioisotope is injected at the height of exercise. The area not receiving sufficient oxygen is visualized by decreased uptake of the isotope
stress test
ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
cardiac enzyme studies
blood test that measures troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kinase (CK-MB)
cardiac enzymes are released into the bloodstream from damaged heart muscle tissue. Their presence in a blood specimen is consistent with myocardial damage
lipid panel
series of tests (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and trigs) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease
angiography
radiographic imaging of the heart and blood vessels after injection of a contrast dye
coronary angiography
angiography to determine the degree of obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
angiography in which two radiographic images are obtained, the first one without contrast material and the second one after a contrast material has been injected, and then compared by a computer that digitally subtracts the images of soft tissue, bones, muscles, leaving only the image of the vessels with contrast
aortography
radiological examination of the aorta and its branches following injection of a contrast medium via a catheter
echocardiography (ECHO)
noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart
A transducer is placed on the best to direct ultra-high-frequency sound waves toward cardiac structures. Reflected echoes are then converted to electrical impulses and displayed on a screen
doppler ultrasound
noninvasive adaption of ultrasound technology in which blood flow velocity is assessed in different areas of the heart
multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA)
nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to produce movie-like images of the structures of the heart, including the myocardium and the mitral and tricuspid valves
The MUGA scan shows the motion of the heart wall muscle and the ventricles ability to eject blood
phonocardiography
Imaging technique that provides graphic display of heart sounds and murmurs during the cardiac cycle
A transducer sends ultrasonic pulses through the chest wall and the echoes are converted into images on a monitor to assess overall cardiac performance
scintigraphy
diagnostic test that uses radiation emitted by the body after injection of radioactive substances to create images of various organs or identify body functions and diseases
scintigraphy identifies infarcted or scarred areas of the heart that show up as "cold spots" (areas of reduced radioactivity), taken when patient is at rest
thallium study
scintigraphy procedure that uses injected radioactive thallium and records the uptake of the isotope with a gamma camera to produce an image
A stress thallium study is commonly performed at the same tome as a resting study to further identify abnormalities
venography
radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, which indicates obstruction
venography is primarily used to locate blood clots in the veins of the leg
cardioversion
procedure to restore noral rhythm to the heart by applying a controlled electrical stock to the exterior of the chest
embolization
technique used to block blood flow to a site by passing a catheter to the area and injecting a synthetic material or medication specially designed to occlude the vessel
embolization may serve to eliminate an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, stop bleeding, or close vessels that are supporting tumor growth
sclerotherapy
injection of a chemical irritant into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
sclerotherapy is commonly performed to treat varicose veins and sometimes telangiectasis
angioplasty
procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a ballon catheter
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter under fluoroscopic guidance
In PTCA, the physician inserts a catheter transcutaneously, inflates the balloon thereby dilating the narrowed vessel, and commonly positions a stent to hold the vessel open
atherectomy
removal of material from an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
catheter ablation
deconstruction of conduction tissue tissue of the heart to interrupt the abnormal conduction pathway causing arrhythmia, thus allowing normal heart rhythm to resume
commissurotomy
surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures" (points of touching)
many candidates for commisurotomy are now treated with balloon or mitral valvuloplasty
laser ablation
procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
ligation and stripping
trying a varicose (ligation) vein followed by removing (stripping) of the affected segment
open heart surgery
surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of the heart-lung machine
pericardiocentesis
puncturing of the pericardium to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac or to test for protein, sugar, and enzymes or determine causative organism for pericarditis
thrombolysis
deconstruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator
valvotomy
incision of a valve to increase size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
venipuncture
puncture of a vein by a needle attached to a syringe or catheter to withdraw a specimen of blood, also called phlebotomy