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236 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 components of the blood
erythrocytes
platelets
leukocytes
plasma
agglutin/o
clumping
bas/o
base
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
eosin/o
rosy red
erythro/o
red
fibrin/o
fibers, fibrous
granul/o
granules
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
leuk/o
white
morph/o
shape
neutr/o
neutral
phag/o
eat, swallow
sanguin/o
blood
thromb/o
clot
-apheresis
removal, carry away
-cytosis
more than the normal number of cells
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-penia
abnormal decrease, too few
-phil
attracted to
-poiesis
formation
-stasis
standing still
How much blood circulates throughout the body?
about 5L
Blood is a mixture of cells floating in watery ___
plasma
Blood cells are referred to as ___
formed elements
What are the 3 kinds of formed elements?
erythrocytes (rbc's)
leukocytes (wbc's)
platelets
Blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow by a process called ___
hematopoiesis
What 2 parts of blood are responsible for transporting substances?
plasma
erythrocytes
What part of blood protects the body from invading microorganisms?
leukocytes
What part of blood plays a role in controlling bleeding?
platelets
What are the 3 most common plasma proteins?
fibrinogen
albumin
globulins
What is the most common type of globulin?
gamma globulin
What is fibrinogen?
a blood-clotting plasma protein
Erythrocytes (rbc's) have no nucleus and are therefore considered ___
enucleated
Why are rbc's red in color?
they contain hemoglobin, which is an iron-containing pigment
What is the life span of erythrocytes?
about 120 days
What part of the rbc cannot be reused and is a waste product disposed of by the liver?
bilirubin
What are the 5 types of leukocytes?
basophils
eosinophils
neutrophils
monocytes
lymphocytes
What are the 2 classifications of leukocytes?
granulocytes
agranulocytes
Leukocyte that releases histamine and heparin to damaged tissues (granulocyte)
basophil
Leukocyte that destroys parasites and increases during allergic reactions (granulocyte)
eosinophil
Leukocyte that is important for phagocytosis; most numerous of the leukocytes (granulocyte)
neutrophil
Leukocyte that is important for phagocytosis (agranulocyte)
monocyte
Leukocyte that plays several different roles in immune response (agranulocyte)
lymphocyte
A ___ is a cell that has the ability to ingest and digest bacteria and other foreign substances
phagocyte
What are the 3 leukocytes that have granules in their cytoplasm (granulocytes)?
basophils
eosinophils
neutrophils
What are the 2 leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm (agranulocytes)?
monocytes
lymphocytes
___, the modern term for thrombocyte, refers to the smallest of all the formed blood elements
platelet
Platelets play a critical role in the blood-clotting process or ___. They ___ or clump together into small clusters when a blood vessel is cut or damaged.
hemostasis
agglutinate
Platelets release a substance called ___, which, in the presence of calcium, reacts with ___, a clotting protein in the blood, to form ___
thromboplastin
prothrombin
thrombin
Thrombin works to convert ___ to ___, which eventually becomes the meshlike blood clot
fibrinogen
fibrin
A laboratory test that determines if donated blood will be compatible with the recipients blood
blood typing
What are the 2 most important subgroups of blood markers?
ABO system
Rh factor
A person with type A blood will produce ___, a person with type B blood will produce ___
anti-B antibodies
anti-A antibodies
If a person has markers for both type A and type B in their blood their blood type would be ___, and does not contain any antibodies
type AB
A person without an A or B marker in their blood has a blood type of ___
O
Blood type that is considered the universal donor
O
The blood type that is the universal recipient
type AB
An ___ person may receive both an Rh+ and an Rh- transfusion, while an ___ person may only receive blood froman Rh- donor
Rh+
Rh-
fiber producing
fibrinogen
destruction of fibers
fibrinolysis
pertaining to fibers
fibrinous
blood protein
hemoglobin
blood destruction (2 terms)
hemolysis
hemolytic
rapid flow of blood
hemorrhage
blood specialist
hematologist
pertaining to blood (2 terms)
hematic
sanguinous
red cell
erythrocyte
white cell
leukocyte
clotting cell
thrombocyte
granular cell
granulocyte
nongranular cell
agranulocyte
too many red cells
erythrocytosis
too many white cells
leukocytosis
too many clotting cells
thrombocytosis
too few red cells
erythropenia
too few white cells
leukopenia
too few clotting cells
thrombopenia
too few of all cells
pancytopenia
red cell producing
erythropoiesis
blood producing
hematopoiesis
white cell producing
leukopoiesis
clotting cell producing
thrombopoiesis
The hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris that is the end result of hemostasis or the blood-clotting process
blood clot
To convert from a liquid to a gel or solid
coagulation
A general term indicating the presence of a disease affecting blood
dyscrasia
The branch of medicine that specializes in treating diseases and conditions of the blood
hematology
The collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessles. Commonly referred to as a bruise.
hematoma
To stop bleeding or the stagnation of blood flow through the tissues
hemostasis
A transfusion of only the formed elements and without plasma
packed cells
Refers to the mixture of both plasma and formed elements
whole blood
Hereditary blood disease in which blood-clotting time is prolonged due to a lack of one vital clotting factor. it is transmitted by a sex-linked trait from females to males, appearing almost exclusively in males
hemophilia
Condition of having too high a level of lipids such as cholesterol in the bloodstream. A risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease
hyperlipidemia
Having bacteria or their toxins in the bloodstream. Commonly referred to as blood poisoning
septicemia
A large group of conditions characterized by a reduction in the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; results in less oxygen reaching the tissues
anemia
Severe form of anemia that develops as a consequence of loss of functioning red bone marrow. Results in a decrease in the number of all the formed elements. Treatment may eventually require a bone marrow transplant.
aplastic anemia
An anemia that develops as the result of the excessive loss of erythrocytes
hemolytic anemia
The destruction of a patient's erythrocytes that occurs when receiving a transfusion of an incompatible blood type. aka a transfusion reaction
hemolytic reaction
Anemia resulting from having insufficient hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. Named because the hemoglobin molecule is responsible for the dark red color of the erythrocytes.
hypochromic anemia
Anemia that results from having insufficient iron to manufacture hemoglobin
iron-deficiency anemia
Anemia associated with insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 by the digestive system.
pernicious anemia
Production of too many red blood cells by the bone marrow. Blood becomes too thick to easily flow through the blood vessels.
polycythemia vera
A genetic disorder in which erythrocytes take on an abnormal curved shape. These cells are fragile and are easily damaged, leading to a hemolytic anemia
sickle cell anemia
A genetic disorder in which the body is unable to make functioning hemoglobin, resulting in anemia
thalassemia
Cancer of the wbc forming red bone marrow resulting in a large number of abnormal and immature wbc's circulating in the blood
leukemia
Sample of blood is incubated in the lab to check for bacterial growth. If bacteria are present, they are identified and tested to determine which antibiotics they are sensitive to
blood culture and sensitivity (C & S)
Conbination of blood tests including: rbc count, wbc count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, wbc differential, and platelet count
complete blood count (CBC)
Blood test to determine the rate at which mature rbc's settle out of the blood after the addition of an anticoagulant. This is an indicator of the presence of an inflammatory disease
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Blood test to measure the volume of rbc's within the total volume of blood
hemoglobin
Blood test to determine the number of platelets in a given volume of blood
platelet count
A measure of the blood's coagulation abilities by measuring how long it takes for a clot to form after prothrombin has been activated
prothrombin time
Blood test to determine the number of erythrocytes in a volume of blood. A decrease in rbc's may indicate anemia; an increase may indicate polycythemia
red blood cell count
Examination of a specimen of blood for abnormalities in the shape of the erythrocytes. Used to determine diseases like sickle cell anemia
red blood cell morphology
Machine for doing multiple blood chemistry tests automatically
sequential multiple analyzer computer (SMAC)
Blood test to measure the number of leukocytes in a volume of blood. An increase may indicate the presence of infection or a disease such as leukemia. A decrease in wbc's may be caused by radiation therapy or chemotherapy
white blood cell count
Blood test to determine the number of each variety of leukocytes
white blood cell differential
Sample of bone marrow is removed by aspiration with a needle and examined for diseases such as leukemia or aplastic anemia
bone marrow aspiration
Incision into a vein in order to remove blood for a diagnostic test. Also called venipuncture
phlebotomy
Procedure for collecting and storing a patients own blood several weeks prior to the actual need. It can then be used to replace blood lost during a surgical procedure
autologous transfusion
Artificial transfer of blood into the bloodstream
blood transfusion
Patient receives red bone marrow from a donor after the patient's own bone marrow has been destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy
bone marrow transplant (BMT)
Replacement of blood by transfusion of blood received from another person
homologous transfusion
Method of removing plasma from the body without depleting the formed elements. Whole blood is removed and the cells and plasma are separated. The cells are returned to the patient along with a donor plasma transfusion
plasmapheresis
Substance that prevents blood clot formation. aka blood thinners
anitcoagulant
Substance that prevents or stops hemorrhaging; a hemostatic agent
antihemorrhagic
Substance that interferes with the action of platelets. Prolongs bleeding time. Used to prevent heart attacks and strokes
antiplatelet agents
Substance that increases the number of erythrocytes or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood
hematinic
Term meaning able to dissolve existing blood clots
thrombolytic
What are the organs of the lymphatic and immune system (5)?
lymph nodes
lymphatic vessels
spleen
thymus gland
tonsils
The ___ consists of a network of lymph vessels that pick up excess tissue fluid, cleanse it, and return it to the ___. It also picks up fats that have been absorbed by the ___
lymphatic system
circulatory system
digestive system
The ___ fights disease and infections
immune system
adenoid/o
adenoids
immun/o
protection
lymph/o
lymph
lymphaden/o
lymph node
lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
path/o
disease
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus
tonsill/o
tonsils
tox/o
poison
-globulin
protein
Excess tissue fluid, once it's inside a lymphatic vessel is referred to as ___
lymph
Lymph vessels around the small intestines, called ___, are able to pick up absorbed fats for transport
lacteals
Lymphatic vessels begin as very small ___ in the tissues
lymphatic capillaries
Lymphatic vessels are in a very low pressure system, so these vessels have ___ along their length to ensure that lymph can only move forward toward the thoracic cavity
valves
The lymphatic vessels drain into one of two ___, the ___ and the ___
lymphatic ducts
right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct
___ are small organs composed of lymphatic tissue located along the route of the lymphatic vessels.
Lymph nodes
Lymph nodes, aka ___, house lymphocytes and antibodies and therefore work to remove pathogens and cell debris as lymph passes through them on its way back to the thoracic cavity
lymph glands
These lymph nodes drain arms and shoulder region; cancer cells from breasts may be present
axillary
These lymph nodes drain the head and neck; may be enlarged during upper respiratory infections
cervical
These lymph nodes drain the legs and lower pelvis
inguinal
These lymph nodes drain the chest cavity
mediastinal
The ___ are collections of lymphatic tissue located on each side of the throat (or pharynx)
tonsils
What are the 3 sets of tonsils?
palatine tonsils
pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
lingual tonsils
The ___, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, consists of lymphatic tissue that is highly infiltrated with blood vessels
spleen
The vessels of the spleen spread out into slow-moving ___
blood sinuses
What are the 3 functions of the spleen?
1. Filters out and destroys old RBC's
2. Recycles the iron
3. Stores some of the blood supply for the body
In the spleen, phagocytic ___ line the blood sinuses to engulf and remove pathogens
macrophages
The ___, located in the upper portion of the mediastinum, is essential for the proper development of the immune system
thymus gland
The thymus glands' hormone, ___, changes lymphocytes to T lymphocytes (T cells), which play an important role in the immune response
thymosin
___ is the body's ability to defend itself against pathogens
Immunity
What are the 2 types of immunity?
Natural immunity
Acquired immunity
___ or ___ are special types of active acquired immunity. Instead of actually being exposed to the infectious agent and having the disease, a person is exposed to a modified or weakened pathogen that is still capable of stimulating the immune response but not actually causing the disease
Immunizations or vaccinations
What are the 2 types of acquired immunity?
Active and Passive
Foreign proteins called ___ stimulate the immune response
antigens
The immune response consists of 2 distinct and different processes, they are ___ and ___
humoral immunity (antibody-mediated immunity) and cellular immunity (cell-mediated immunity)
Humoral immunity refers to the production of ___, which respond to antigens by producing a protective protein called an ___
B lymphocytes (B cells)
antibody
Antibodies combine with the antigen to form an ___
antigen-antibody complex
Cellular immunity involves the production of T cells and ___, which are ___, meaning they physically attack and destroy pathogenic cells
natural killer (NK) cells
cytotoxic
An infection acquired at a hospital is referred to as a ___
nosocomial infection
What does OSHA stand for?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
adenoidectomy
removal of the adenoids
adenoiditis
inflammation of the adenoids
immunologist
immunity specialist
lymphadenectomy
removal of a lymph gland
lymphadenopathy
lymph gland disease
lymphangiogram
record of lymph vessels
lymphangioma
lymph vessel tumor
lymphoma
lymph tumor
lymphatic
pertaining to lymph
pathogenic
disease producing
pathology
study of disease
splenectomy
removal of spleen
splenomegaly
enlarged spleen
thymectomy
removal of the thymus
thymoma
thymus tumor
tonsillar
pertaining to tonsils
tonsillectomy
removal of tonsils
tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils
An antigen that causes an allergic reaction
allergen
a physician who specializes in testing for and treating allergies
allergist
Hypersensitivity to a common substance in the environment or to a medication
allergy
A disease resulting from the body's immune system attacking its own cells as if they were pathogens
autoimmune disease
Appearance of wheals as part of an allergic reaction
hives
Virus that causes AIDS; aka retrovirus
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Having an immune system that is unable to respond properly to pathogens
immunocompromised
Antibodies secreted by the B cells.
immunoglobulins
A branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases and other disorders of the immune system
immunology
The tissues' response to injury from pathogens or physical agents. Characterized by redness, pain, swelling, and feeling hot to touch
inflammation
Edema appearing in the extremities due to an obstruction of the lymph flow through the lymphatic vessels
lymphedema
infectious diseases associated with patients who have compromised immune systems and therefore a lowered resistance to infections and parasites
opportunistic infections
Severe itching associated with hives, usually linked to food allergy, stress, or drug reactions
urticaria
Life-threatening condition resulting from a severe allergic reactions
anaphylactic shock
Inflammation, obstruction, and destruction of the lymph vessels resulting in enlarged tissues due to edema
elephantiasis
Cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes
Hodgkin's disease
Inflammation of the lymph nodes (swollen glands)
lymphadenitis
Acute infectious disease with a large number of abnormal lymphocytes. Caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Abnormal liver function may occur
mononucleosis
Cancer of the lymphatic tissues other than Hodgkin's lymphoma
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)
Disease involving a defect in the cell-mediated immunity system. A syndrome of opportunistic infections occurring in the final stages of infection with the HIV
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Early stage of AIDS
AIDS-related complex (ARC)
Serious complication of bone marrow transplant. Immune cells from the donor bone marrow attack the recipient's tissues
graft vs. host disease
Form of skin cancer frequently seen in patients with AIDS
Kaposi's sarcoma
Pneumonia common in patients with AIDS that is caused by infection with an opportunistic parasite
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
Disease of unknown cause that forms fibrous lesions commonly appearing in the lymph nodes, liver, skin, lungs, spleen, eyes, and small bones of the hands and feet
sarcoidosis
Disease seen in children born with a nonfunctioning immune system.
severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS)
A blood test for an antibody to the AIDS virus.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Test used as a backup to the ELISA blood test to detect the presence of the antibody to HIV (AIDS virus) in the blood
western blot
X-ray taken of the lymph vessels after the injection of dye into the foot. The lymph flow through the chest is traced
lymphangiography
Test for infectious mononucleosis
monospot
Form of allergy testing in which the body is exposed to an allergen through a light scratch in the skin
scratch test
Giving a patient an injection of immunoglobulins or antibodies in order to treat a disease
immunotherapy
Exposure to a weakened pathogen that stimulates the immune response and antibody production in order to confer protection against the full-blown disease
vaccination, aka immunization
Removal of a lymph node. This is usually done to test for malignancy
lymphadenectomy
Blocks the effects of histamine released by the body during an allergic reaction
antihistamine
A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti-inflammatory properties. Particularly useful in treating autoimmune diseases
corticosteroids
Blocks certain actions of the immune system. Required to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
immunosuppressants
Inhibits protease, an enzyme viruses need to reproduce
protease inhibitor drugs
Inhibits reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed by viruses to reproduce
reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs
Another name for platelets
thrombocytes
How many erythrocytes are there per cubic mm of blood?
about 5 million
How many leukocytes are there per cubic mm of blood?
about 8,000
How many platelets (thrombocytes) are there per cubic mm of blood?
200,000 to 300,000