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129 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cytoplasm
Gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell but is contained within the cell membrane.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Molecule that holds genetic information and makes an exact copy of itself whenever a cell divides.
diagnosis
Identification of a disease or condition by scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory and clinical test results, and radiographic procedures.
endoscope
Instrument consisting of a rigid or flexible fiberoptic tube and optical system for observing the inside of a hollow organ or cavity.
etiology
Study of the causes of disease.
fluoroscope
Instrument, consisting of an x-ray machine and a fluorescent screen, used to view the internal organs of the body
idiopathic
Pertaining to conditions without clear pathogensis, or disease without recognizable cause, as of spontaneous origin.
metabolism
Chemical changes the take place in a cell or an organism and produce energy and basic materials needed for all life processes.
prognosis
Prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated chance of recovery.
sign
Any objective evidence or manifestation of an illness or a disordered function of the body.
symptom
Any change in the body or its functions as perceived by the patient.
Levels of organization
Cell
Tissue
Organ
System
Organism
cytology
Study of the body at the cellular level.
histology
Study of tissues.
4 major tissues of the body
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
Midsagittal (median) plane
Divides the body into right and left halves.
Coronal (frontal) plane
Divides the body into Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) halves.
Transverse (horizontal) plane
Divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) halves.
abduction
Movement away from the median plane of the body or one of its parts.
adduction
Movement toward the median plane of the body.
Medial
Pertaining to the midline of the body or structure.
Lateral
Pertaining to a side.
Superior (cephalad)
Toward the head or upper portion of a structure.
Inferior (caudial)
Away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure.
Proximal
Nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body.
Distal
Further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body.
Anterior (ventral)
Near the front of the body.
Posterior (dorsal)
Near the back of the body.
Parietal
Pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity.
Visceral
Pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs.
Prone
Lying horizontal with the face downward, or indicating the hand with palms turned downward.
Supine
Lying on the back with the face upward, or indicating the position of the hand or foot with the palm or foot facing upward.
Inversion
Turning inward or inside out.
Eversion
Turning outward.
Palmar
Pertaining to the palm of the hand.
Plantar
Pertaining to the sole of the foot.
Superficial
Toward to the surface of the body.
Deep
Away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
nucle/o
nucleus
kary/o
nucleus
anter/o
anterior, front
caud/o
tail
crani/o
cranium (skull)
dist/o
far, farthest
dors/o
back (of body)
infer/o
lower, below
later/o
side
medi/o
middle
poster/o
back (of body), behind, posterior
proxim/o
near, nearest
ventr/o
belly, belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen
cervic/o
neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
crani/o
cranium (skull)
gastr/o
stomach
ili/o
ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
inguin/o
groin
lumb/o
loins, lower back
umbilic/o
navel
pelv/i
pelvis
pelv/o
pelvis
spin/o
spine
thorac/o
chest
albin/o
white
leuk/o
white
chlor/o
green
chrom/o
color
cirrh/o
yellow
jaund/o
yellow
xanth/o
yellow
cyan/o
blue
erythr/o
red
melan/o
black
poli/o
gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
acr/o
extremity
eti/o
cause
fasci/o
band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
idi/o
unknown, peculiar
morph/o
form, shape, structure
path/o
disease
radi/o
radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side)
somat/o
body
son/o
sound
viscer/o
internal organs
xer/o
dry
-logy
study of
-logist
specialist in the study of
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
-gnosis
knowing
-gram
record, writing
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-meter
instrument for measuring
-metry
act of measuring
-pathy
disease
ab-
from, away from
ad-
toward
infra-
below, under
infra-
below, under
hetereo-
different
homeo-
same, alike
peri-
around
super-
upper, above
trans-
across, through
ultra-
excess, beyond
ant
anterior
AP
anteroposterior
Bx, bx
biopsy
CT
computed tomography
CT scan, CAT scan
computed (axial) tomography scan
DSA
digital subtraction angiography
Dx
diagnosis
LAT, lat
lateral
LLQ
left lower quadrant
LUQ
left upper quadrant
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
PA
posteroanterior; pernicious anemia
PET
positron emission tomography
post
posterior
RLQ
right left quadrant
RUQ
right upper quadrant
sono
sonogram
SPECT
single photon emission computed tomography
Sx
symptom
Tx
treatment
U&L, U/L
upper and lower
US
ultrasound