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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-ase
enzyme
carbo
carbon atom
celi/o
abdomen
cheil/o
(chil/o)
lips
chol/o
(chol/e)
bile
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon
dent/o
teeth
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestines
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o
tongue
glyc/o
sugar
hepat/o
liver
hepatic/o
liver
herni/o
rupture, hernia
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
lapar/o
abdomen
lip/o
fat, lipid
lith/o
stone (calcification)
odont/o
tooth
pancreat/o
pancreas
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
proct/o
rectum, anus
pylor/o
pylorus (gatekeeper)
rect/o
rectum
sial/o
saliva
sigmoid/o
sigmoind colon
splen/o
spleen
stom/a
mouth
typhl/o
cecum
viscer/o
internal organs
alimentary canal
gastrointestinal tract (nutrition given intravenously is called hyperalimentation)
alveolus
a bony socket in which the root of each tooth sits
amino acids
type of compound that is an essential building block of the human body
amylase
type of chemical substance (enzyme) secreted by the pancreas
anal canal
passageway through which fecal material is passed
anus
exit site of the digestive canal from which feces are excreted
bile
greenish substance secreted by the liver and passed into the duodenum; helps with emulsification of fats
carbohydrate
type of compound containing carbon atoms that is composed of small molecules such as sugars
cardiac sphincter
muscle ring at the inferior end of the esophagus that prevents food from going back up the esophagus
cecum
sac that lies below the ileum and is the beginning of the large intestine
cholecystokinin
hormone that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of pancreatic juice
chyme
substance made up of partly digested food passed from the stomach to duodenum
common bile duct
outlet for bile to be passed into the duodenum; formed by the joining of the common hepatic duct with the cystic duct
deciduous
teeth called the baby teeth that fall out; not permanent
duodenum
first area of the small intestine; cholecystokinin is secreted by the duodenal mucosa
emulsion
substance formed by two liquids that do not totally mix (e.g. oil in water)
enzyme
protein that makes other substances change; enzyme names usually end in -ase (e.g. maltase changes maltose)
esophagus
structure between the pharynx and stomach
fat
greasy substance found in tissues
frenulum
mucous membrane that anchors the bottom of the tongue to the floor of the mouth
fundus
part farthest away from the opening
gallbladder
organ that stores bile
gastric juice
secretion from the stomach
gastroenterology
study of the digestive system
glucose
a type of sugar
hepatic
pertaining to the liver
ileum
portion of the small intestine from the jejunum to the ileocecal opening
jejunum
portion of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum
lacteal
lymph vessel that absorbs fatty lipid materials from the chyme
large intestine
section of the GI tract below the small intestine
liver
largest gland in the body; secretes bile and filters
mastication
process of chewing
mesentery
fan-shaped fold of the peritoneum that covers most of the small intestine
microvilli
tiny projections within the small intestine that greatly increase the surface area to better absorb nutrients
omentum
fatty layer covering the front of the intestines like an apron
pancreas
gland that extends from the duodenum to the spleen; exocrine portion secretes pancreatic juices directly into the intestine; endocrine portion secretes insulin and glucagon
parietal
wall of a cavity
parotid
salivary gland located near the ear
peristalsis
action of the intestine characterized by alternating contraction and relaxation to propel food substances forward
peritoneum
tissue that lines the abdominal cavity
plicae
circular folds of the intestines covered with villi
protein
substance from which the body is made
pyloric sphincter
muscular band that holds food in the stomach while it is being digested
pylorus
bottom part of the stomach
rectum
final portion of the GI tract
rugae
the lining of the stomach is tucked into rugae,or folds, that expand when filled to allow for better exposure for absorption
saliva
secretion from the salivary glands in the mouth that begins the process of digestion
small intestine
portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and large intestine
stomach
sac between the esophagus and the small intestine
sublingual
under the tongue
submandibular
below the mandible (jaw)
tooth
structure within the mouth that is formed through mastication
uvula
fleshy structure in the back of the throat that prevents food from entering the nasopharynx
vermiform appendix
structure known as the appendix; composed of lymphatic tissue but has only a minor role in the immunologic system; attached to the cecum and lies close to the wall of the rectum
villi
hairlike projections within the intestine
visceral
refers to the internal organs
aglossia
congenital anomaly in which an infant has no tongue
ankyloglossia
tongue-tied; the tongue is not freely movable
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix (actual name is vermiform appendix)
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder when fatty foods are ingested and the secretion from the gallbladder (bile) is unable to digest them
cholelithiasis
gallstone formation in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cleft palate
congenital abnormality consisting of an opening in the palate
constipation
condition in which food passes too slowly through the GI tract , and water is absorbed from the small and large intestines, causing fecal material to become hard and difficult to pass through the anal canal
Crohn's disease
chronic disorder usually involving the terminal ileum; there are ulcers, fistulas, and fibrotic areas of bowel
cystic fibrosis
hereditary disorder characterized by respiratory difficulties and frequent, mushy, foul-smelling stools because of missing pancreatic enzymes
diarrhea
frequent, loos, watery stools from improper absorption of water in the colon
diverticulum
diverticulosis
diverticulitis
pouch that develops like a hernia of the mucosa of the GI tract
emesis
vomit; vomiting
heartburn
condition characterized by regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus
hemorrhoid
charaacterized by the painful outpouching of veins in the anal area (commonly called piles)
hepatitis (viral)
inflammation of the liver caused by viral pathogens found in food or blood
hiatal (hiatus) hernia
hernia of the stomach that pushes out near the esophagus and diaphragm
ileus
absence of peristalsis, causing obstruction within the intestine
imperforate anus
congenital anomaly in which there is no anal opening
inguinal hernia
portion of the intestine pushed out through a weakened area of the tissue that would normally contain it; inguinal hernia is seen in the inguinal area, or groin
intussusception
enfolding of one part of the intestine into another, causing a blockage
jaundice
yellowish color of the skin and mucous membranes because of increased bile pigment in the blood
lactose intolerance
lacatose, a sugar, cannot be digested properly by the GI tract; characterized by gassiness and often diarrhea after ingestion of dairy products
meconium
first elimination of the newborn; consists of mucus, bile
neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
death of the tissues of the ileum and colon of premature infants, perhaps due to bacteria and decreased blood supply to the intestines
polyp
mass of tissue or projection from the surface of the intestine
pyloric stenosis
first appears in the 6-week-old male child (most commonly) and is characterized by a narrowing of the pyloric sphincter, causing projectile vomiting
reflux
backward flow of stomach contents (as in heartburn)
suprapubic
area of the abdomen above the pubic bones
tracheoesophageal fistula
abnormal opening between the trachea and the esophagus that causes food to enter the trachea and cause choking and pneumonia
ulcer
hole in the mucosa
ulscerative cloitis
chronic desease characterized by ulceration of the colon and rectum and an inflammatory process usually in the colon
umbilicus
the naval (belly button)
umbilical hernia
portion of the intestine is pushed out through a weakened area of the tissue that would normally contain it; an umbilical hernia can be seen at the belly button