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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
angi/o
vessel
arteri/o
artery
arteriol/o
arteriole
ather/o
deposit of pasty material
atri/o
atrium
brady
slow
cardi/o
heart
coron/o
crown or circle
phleb/o
vein
scler/o
hardening
sept/o
partition
sphygm/o
relating to the pulse
sten/o
narrowing, constriction
steth/o
chest
thromb/o
blood clot
varic/o
twisted, swollen vein
vas/o
vessel
vascul/o
vessel
ven/o
vein
ventricul/o
ventricle
aorta
main artery in the body
apex
(apices)
pointed portion of the heart at the lowe edge directed toward the midline (the base is at the top of the heart)
arteriole
small vessels in the body responsible for blood pressure; they lead into the capillaries
artery
blood vessels that carries blood away from the heart
atrioventricluar node
area of the heart responsible for the conduction of electrical impulses
atrium
upper chamber of the heart
biscuspid valve
mitral valve (atrioventricular valve) that has two cusps located between the left atrium and ventricle
bundle of HIS
group of nerve fibers that conduct the electrical impulses through the heart muscle (antrioventricular bundle)
capillary
smallest unti of the vascular system; location of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
chordae tendineae
stringlike structures that connect the AV valves to the wall of the heart
diastole
relaxation of the heart muscle
diastolic pressure
perpesents the minimum arterial pressure; the bottom number of the recording of the blood
epicardium
membrane that forms the inner layer of the pericardium; covers the myocardium
lumen
cavity of a blood vessel
mitral valve
biscuspid valve located between the left atrium and ventricle (named for mitered hat that bishops wear)
pericardium
membrane that surrounds the heart
pulse
dilation of an artery from the contraction of the heart causing blood to be sent into the vessel
Purkinje fibers
specialized cells located in the walls of the ventricles that are part of the heart's conduction system; they relay impulses from the AV node to the ventricles, causing them to contract
seminlunar valves
valves located between the two ventricular chambers and the large arteries that carry blood away from the heart
systole
contraction of the heart muscle
systolic pressure
maximum arterial pressure during each cardiac cycle (recorded as tht top number in blood pressure)
tricuspid valve
valve located between the right atrium and ventricle
vein
vessel that carries blood toward the heart
vena cave
largest vein in the body
ventricles
actual pumping chambers of the heart
venules
small vessels that collect blood from the capillaries and join to form veins
atrial septal defect
(ASD)
abnormal opening in the atrial septum resulting in excessive pulmonary blood flow
coarctation of the aorta
severe narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta; may have aortic valve defect; the left ventricle overworks
patent ductus arteriosus
(PDA)
persistence of the opening of the ductus arteriosus
tetralogy of Fallot
abnormality consisting of four defects:
(1) pulmonary artery stenosis
(2) ventricular septal defect
(3) right ventricular hypertrophy, and
(4) dextroposition of the aorta
ventricular septal defect
(VSD)
abnormal opening in the septum between ventricles
aortic regurgitation
blood regurgitates back through the aortic valve into the left ventricle during diastole
aortic stenosis
aortic valve cusps restrict flow of blood during systole owing to calcification
mitral regurgitation
blood regurgitates back through the mitral valve into the left atrium
mitral stenosis
mitral valve does not open properly as a result of calcification
pulmonic regurgitation
blood flows backward through an incompetent pulmonic valve from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
pulmonic stenosis
calcification of pulmonic valve restricts forward flow of blood
tricuspid regurgitation
blood regurgitates back through the tricuspid valve into the right atrium
tricuspid stenosis
tricuspid valve does not open properly because of calcification, impeding the flow of blood into the right ventricle during diastole
bruit
type of turbulent flow of blood that can be heard in the neck
gallop
very rapid heart beat that sound like a horse's gallop
murmur
abnormal heart sound that represents turbulent blood flow within the the heart
rub
friction heard as a grating sound from inflamed pericardial surface rubbing during heart's contraction
rumble
low-pitched murmur
thrill
type of heart sound that can be felt as a vibration by placing the hand over the heart
angina pectoris
severe pain in the chest (and often other areas such as arm, jaw, and back) caused by decreased blood flow (insufficient oxygen) to the heart
arrhythmia
irregular heart rhythm
bradycardia
slow heartbeat
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
clubbing
club-shaped digits resulting from decreased blood flow and oxygenation
congestive heart failure
condition in which the heart and vessels have difficulty pumping blood and perfusing the body
cor pulmonale
enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from diseases in the lungs and pulmonary arteries
ectopic beats
ectopia
heartbeat outside of the regular rate and rhythm; originates outside of the normal SA node regulation
endocarditis
inflammation of the endocardium
fibrillation
extremelly rapid heartbeats in which the heart muscle fibers are beating at different times and unable to be synchronous
heart block
partial or complete block of the electrical impulses from the SA node
heart block
partial or complete block of the elecrical impulses from the SA node
infarct
death of a part of the heart because of decreased blood supply
ischemia
decreased blood flow
mammary souffle
soft blowing sound heard on auscultation of the pregnant female's heart because of increased vascularity in breasts
myocardial infarction
decreased blood flow to the heart leading to tissue death of the heart muscle itself
myocarditis
inflammation of the heart muscle
palpitation
feeling of the heartbeat within the chest
paroxysmal tachycardia
suddent onset of rapid heartbeats
pericarditis
inflammation of the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the heart
tachycardia
rapid heartbeat
aneurysm
balloonlike swelling or outpouching of an artery
arteriosclerosis
condition in which the walls of the small arteries are hardened
arteriostenosis
narrowing of the arteries
arteritis
inflammation of an artery
atherosclerosis
blockage caused by lipid deposits in the arteries
embolism
obstruction of a vessel
hyperlipemia
increased fatty substances (lipids) in the blood
hypertension
increased blood pressure
hypotension
decreased blood pressure
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
Raynaud's disease
(phenomenon, syndrome)
cyanosis of the fingers due to arterial contraction; usually caused by cold
superior vena cava syndrome
obstruction of the superior vena cava causing swelling of the vessels of the neck, coughing, and difficulty breathing
thrombophlebitis
inflammation in a vein caused by a thrombus formation (blood clot)
thrombosis
clot formation in the blood vessels
thrombus
blood clot
varicose vein
dilated and twisted vein usually found in the legs
vasoconstriction
narrowing of a vessel
vasodilation
dilation of a vessel
vasospasm
involuntary contraction in a vein
angiectomy
removal of a blood vessel
angiogram
procedure to determine the flow of blood through the heart and main vessels; a catheter is insered into a main vessel and threaded into the coronary artery; dye is injected through the catheter and the heart is visualized on a monitor
angioplasty
procedure to repair a vessel, usually a main vessel of the heart
balloon angioplasty
procedure in which a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into the coronary artery and then inflated to push plaque against the vessel walls and free an obstruction
coronary artery bypass graft
(CABG)
procedure to remove sections of occluded vessels of the heart; a large vessel from another part of the body, usually the mammary artery or saphenous vein, is removed and attached to either end of the vessel (anastomosed)
echocardiogram
ultrasound that records the function of the valves and flow of blood through the heart
high-density lipoprotein
(HDL)
fatty substance (type of lipid) found in the blood that decreases the risk of heart attack
low-density lipoprotein
(LDL)
fatty substance (type of lipid) found in the blood that increases the risk of heart disease
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasy
(PTCA)
procedure in which a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into the coronary artery and then inflated to push plaque against the vessel walls and free an obstruction
serum cholesterol
blood test to determine the level of the lipid cholesterol in the blood
thallium stress test
the radioactive substance thallium is injected into the patient to enable visualization of the heart's action during activity (walking on a treadmill) and then resting after the exercise
transesophageal echocardiography
test to visualize the back of the heart by passing a tube through the throat and down the esophagus
triglycerides
fatty substances within the blood
angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitors:

use
prevent vasoconstriction
angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitors:

Generic Name
captopril
enalapril maleate
quinapril hydrochloride
ramipril
angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitors:

Brand name
Capoten
Vasotec
Accupril
Altace
Antianginals:

use
relieve the pain of acute angina by causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and consequent dilatation of peripheral arteries and veins
Antianginals:

Generic Name
isosorbide dinatrate
nitroglycerin
Antianginals:

Brand Name
Isordil
Nitrolingual (spray)
Nitrostat (sublingual)
Minitran (patch)
antiarrhythmic:

use
corrects/improves abnormal rhythms
antiarrhythmic:

Generic Name
acebutolol hydrochloride
digoxin
antiarrhythmic:

Brand Name
Sectral

Lanoxin
anticoagulants:

use
keep blood flowing without thromboses; inhibit blood clotting
anticoagulants:

Generic Name
aspirin
enoxaparin (low-molecular-weight heparin)
heparin
warfarin sodium
anticoagulants:

Brand Name
Bufferin, Ecotrin
Lovenox

Hep-Lock
Coumadin
beta adrenergic blockers:

use
block certain receptors in the heart to decrease the heart rate and the force of contraction
beta adrenergic blockers:

Generic Name
atenolol
proranolol hydrochloride
beta adrenergic blockers:

Brand Name
Tenormin
Inderal, Innopran XL
calcium channel blockers:

use
inhibit calcium flow into muscle cells, leading to muscle relaxation
calcium channel blockers:

Generic Name
nifedipine
verapamil hydrochloride
diltiazem hydrochloride
calcium channel blockers:

Brand Name
Adalat CC, Procardia AL
Calan, Verelan

Cardizem, Dilacor XR
diuretics:

use
decrease fluid retention by promoting increased urinary output (diuresis)
diuretics:

Generic Name
furosemide
hydrochlorothiazide
diuretics:

Brand Name
Lasix
Aquazide H, Oretic
hypolipidemics:

use
decrease cholesterol level in the blood
hypolipidemics:

Generic Name
fluvastatin sodium
lovastatin
simvastatin
protective agent:

use
prevent cardiotoxicity from doxorubicin
protective agent:

Generic Name
dexrazoxane
protective agent:

Brand Name
Zinecard
ACG
angiocardiography
AS
aortic stenosis
ASD
atrial septal defect
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
BBB
bundle-branch block
CAD
coronary artery disease
CC
cardiac catheterization
CCU
coronary care unit
CF
circumflex (artery)
CHF
congestive heart failure
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CV
cardiovascular
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
ECG or EKG
electrocardiogram
ICA
internal carotid artery
IMA
internal mammary artery
IV
intravenous
LAD
left anterior descending coronary artery
LCA
left coronary artery
LCF
left circumflex
LIMA
left internal mammary artery
LMCA
left main coronary artery
LPA
left pulmonary artery
LCF
left circumflex
LIMA
left internal mammary artery
LMCA
left main coronary artery
LPA
left pulmonary artery