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145 Cards in this Set

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Achalasia
inability of the muscles of the digestive tract to relax
Alimentary
pertaining to food or nutrition
Ankyloglossia
restrained tongue movements due to a shortened frenulum; tongue-tied
Anodontia
condition of no teeth (a developmental condition)
Anorectal
pertaining to the anus and rectum
Appendectomy
excision of the appendix
Appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
Buccal Mucosa
pertaning to the muccous membrane of the cheek
Cecopexy
surgical fixation of the cecum
Celiac
pertaining to the abdomen
Cheilorrhaphy
suturing of lips
Cheilosis
abnormal condition of the lips characterized by deep, cracklike sores known as fissures
Cholangiogram
x-ray of a bile vessel
Cholecystectomy
excision of the gallbladder
Cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholecystolithiasis
condition of stones in the gallbladder.
Choledochectomy
excision of the common bile duct
Cholelithiasis
gallstones
cholestasis
stoppage of the flow of bile through the biliary system.
Colitis
inflammation of the colon
Colonoscopy
process of visually examining the colon
Duodenojejunostomy
surgical creation of a new opening between the duodenum and the jejunum; in other words, an anastomosis between the duodenum and the jejunum.
Endodontist
Dentist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases within the tooth including the dental pulp and related structures.
Enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
Esophageal atresia
closure of the esophageal lumen (space within the esophagus)
Gastrospasm
sudden, involuntary contractions of the stomach
Gingivobuccal
pertaining to the gums and cheek
Gluconeogenesis
formation of sugar from proteins and carbohydrates.
Glycogenolysis
the breakdown of glycogen to form glucose
Hepatocyte
liver cell
Hyperbilirubinemia
excessive amounts of bilirubin in the blood
Hypoglycemia
deficient amounts of sugar in the blood
Ileostomy
surgical creation of a new opening in the ileum by bringing the ileum through the abdominal wall
Labioglossopharyngeal
pertaining to the lips, tongue, and throat
Laparoscope
instrument used to visually examine the abdominal and pelvic contents
Leukoplakia
condition of white patches on the mucous membrane
Odontalgia
tooth ache
Orthodontist
A dentist who specializes in the correction of deformed or maloccluded teeth
Pancreatogenic
produced by or formed in the pancreas
Parenteral
refers to methods of placing pharmacological agents into the body via routes other than the digestive tract, for example, intramuscular or intravenous injection
Perianal
pertaining to around the anus
Periodontitis
inflammation involving the structures surrounding the tooth, including gums, cementum, periodontal ligament, and bony socket
Peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
Proctoclysis
irrigation of the rectum
Ptyalism
excessive secretion of saliva
Pyloromyotomy
incision into the pyloric sphincter
Pylorospasm
sudden, involuntary contraction of the pyloric sphincter
Retroperitoneal
pertaining to behind the peritoneum
Sialandenitis
inflammation of the salivary glands
Sialolith
stone in the saliva
Sigmoidoscopy
process of visually examining the sigmoid colon
Stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth
Sublingual
pertaining to under the tongue
Duodenum
1st part of small intestine
Jejunum
middle part of small intestine
Ileum
last part of small intestine
Dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
Aphagia
inability to swallow
LES
lower esophageal sphincter aka cardic sphincter
UES
upper esophageal sphincter
Coronal
pertaining to crown
Dental caries
cavities
Alveolus
bony structure that tooth fits into
Gingiva
gum
Labi/o; Cheil/o; Labial
lip; pertaining to the lip
Cheiloplasty
surgical reconstructure (fixation) of the lip
Labial frenulum
structure that connects lips to gums
Lingual frenulum
structure that connects tongue to bottom of mouth
Alimentary canal
Tube that goes throughout the whole digestive system. Aka gastrointestinal tract
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
backward flow of gastric contents into the esophagus
Emetic
induces vomitting
Antiemetic
stops vomitting
Sphincterotomy
incision into a sphincter
Achlorhydrid
absence of production of hydrochloricacid
Emesis
vomitting
Nausea
sensation that accompanies vomitting
Cardia
Top of stomach, lateral to heart
Gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
Fundoplasty
surgical fixation of LES to correct GERD
Hyperemesis
excessive vomitting
Hematemesis
vomitting blood
Ileocecal
valve between the ileum and large intestine preventing contents of large intestine from enterting the small intestine.
Ptyalism
over production of saliva
ptyal/o; sial/o
saliva
sialaden/o
salivary glands
Pancreatic Juice
exocrine secretions of enzymes by the acinar cells and sodium bicarbonate by the duct cells
Aphthous stomatitis; canker soures; oral aphthae
recurring ulcers of the oral mucosa that are caused by the herpes simplex virus or are idiopathic
Cleft palate; cleft lip
imcomplete closure of the hard and/or soft palate, which results in fissuring of the lips (cleft lip) or palate (cleft palate)
Thrush
fungal infection of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, cause by the microorganism Candida albicans
Esophageal varices
dilated, tortuous veins of the esophagus
Peptic ulcers
a wearing away and necrosis of the mucous membrane lining the digestive tract (peptic means pertaining to digestion)
Anal fissure; fissure in ano
a cracklike sore in the anal canal
Anal fistula; fistula in ano
abnormal passage in the anal area
Celiac disease; celiac sprue
hereditary condition characterized by malabsorption of food caused by an intolerance to gluten (celiac means related to the abdomen and sprue means intestinal malabsorption)
Crohn's Disease
form of inflammatory bowel disease which may involve any part of the digestive tract but usually the distal ileum
Diverticulum
pockets in the mucous membrane occurring at any point along the digestive tract but usually in the sigmoid colon, duodenum, and jejunum
Meckel's diverticulum
a congenital condition caused by failure of a fetal duct to be obliterated, as it normally is in early fetal life.
Hemorrhoids; piles
dilatation of the veins of the anal canal often referred to as internal or external hemorrhoids depending on the location of the affected veins
Hirschsprung's Disease; congenital megacolon
obstruction of colonic contents caused by congenital absence of nerves innervating the large intestine
Intestinal obstruction
intestinal obstruction occurs when the contents of the digestive tract fail to move toward the rectum
Intussusception
the telescoping of one segment of bowel into another
Volvulus
the twisting of one segment of bowel around another.
Paralytic ileus or ileus
temporary loss of peristatic waves along the small intestine.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); spastic colon
common condition characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation
Polyps
benign growth of tissue originating from the mucous membrane and extending into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract
Cirrhosis of the liver
hepatocelluar degeneration caused by the effects of hepatitis or most commonly alcoholism
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
anorexia
loss of appetite caused by disorder of the digestive system
Aphagia
not eating
Ascites
accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
Constipation
difficulty in producing bowel movement
Diarrhea
watery discharge from the bowel caused by irritants such as toxins and microorganisms
Dyspepsia
indigestion
Emaciation
extreme thinness
eructation
expulsion of gastric gas or air through the mouth
Flatulence
distention of the abdomen caused by increased amounts of air or gas in the intestine or stomach
Jaundice
yellow pigmentation of teh skin caused by liver disease or obstruction of teh passage of bile to the duodenum
Melena
black tarry stools caused by the mixture of intestinal juices with blood
Melanemesis
black vomit caused by blood from bleeding ulcers mixing with food
Pruritus ani
severe itching of the anus
Steatorrhea
discharge of fat in the feces in celiac diseased
Cholecystography
x-ray of the gallbladder following oral injection of the contrast medium Telepaque
Barium enema (BE)
x-ray and fluoroscopic examination of the large bowel following injection of barium sulfate as a contrast medium into the rectum
Barium swallow
x-ray and fluoroscopic examination of the pharynx and esophagus, following oral intake of barium sulfate
Fluoroscopy
x-ray examination of a moving image, such as the movement of substances through the digestive tract
Anitbiotics
drugs used to kill bacteria
Gavage
instillation of nutritive substances into the stomach via a nasogastric tube
Lavage
to irrigate or wash out an organ such as the intestine following ingestion of a toxic substance
Litholytic agent
oral drugs used to dissolve gallstones in patients, thereby eliminating the need for surgery
Nasogastric intubation
insertion of a soft rubber or plastic tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric pressures, remove toxins, and obtain samples of gastric contents for analysis
Cecopexy
surgical fixation of the cecum
Colostomy
surgical creation of a new opening between the colon and abdominal wall
Colocolostomy
surgical creation of a new opening between two segments of the large intestines
Duodenorrhaphy
suturing of the duodenum
Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy (ERS)
use of electrocautery to widen the biliary ducts to allow the release of the stones into the duodenum
Gastrojejunostomy
surgical creation of a new opening between the stomach and jejunum
Herniorrhaphy
surgical repair of a hernia
Ileectomy
removal of the ileum
Laparoscopic surgery
use of a laparoscope for removing structures such as the uterus, gallbladder, and kidneys
Lithotripsy
use of ultrasonic shock waves to shatter the gallstones, thereby allowing the fragments to pass freely through the biliary system into the duodenum
Palatoplasty
surgical repair of cleft palate
Pyloromyotomy
incision of the pyloric sphincter
Endoscopy
visual examination of body cavities by inserting a tube equipped with a light and lens system
Abdominal paracentesis
surgical removal of the peritoneal cavity to remove excess fluid for examination
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
x-rays of biliary and pancreatic system, including the ampulla of Vater, using an endoscope and following insertion of a contrast medium